Psychometric Features of the First Part of the Youth Anxiety Measure (Yam-5-I) in the Turkish Children’s Sample

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.52963/PERR_Biruni_V11.N2.18

Keywords:

Child, Anxiety, Validity, Reliability, Psychometrics

Abstract

Murris et al (2017) developed the Youth Anxiety Measure (YAM-5-I), according to DSM V criteria in order to determine the anxiety levels of children and young people. In this study, basic validity and reliability studies were carried out by Simon et al (2017) within the framework of adapting the 27-item form of this scale for children aged 8-12, in which they carried out validity and reliability studies, to the Turkish sample. Youth Anxiety Measure (YAM-5-I), the Perceived Family Social Support Scale and the Cognitive Distortion Scale for Children were used as data collection tools. In the construct valid study conducted within the framework of validity studies, it was seen that the second-level factor structure with five factors of the scale had good fit values (χ²/sd= 1.86, CFI= .90, IFI= .90, TLI= .90, GFI= .90 and RMSEA= .04). In another validity study, significant relationships were found between the total score and subscale scores of the scale and the Perceived Family Social Support Scale and the Cognitive Distortion Scale for Children, except for the Separation Anxiety subscale. In reliability studies, the Cronbach alpha coefficient is .87 for the total scale and subscales. Between 65, the correlation between the synonyms is .80 for the total scale and the test-retest correlation coefficients are .74 for the total scale; For the subscale, it was found to vary between .64 and .90. These findings show that the MCQ 5-I measure the anxiety levels of the Turkish child sample in a valid and reliable manner.

References

American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorder, 4th edt. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorder, 5th edt. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.

Anderson, J. C., Williams, S., McGee, R., &Silva, P. A. (1987). DSM-III disorders in preadolescent children: prevalence in a large sample form the general population. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44, 69-76. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1987.01800130081010

Baltacı, Ö. & Hamarta, E. (2013). Üniversite öğrencilerinin sosyal kaygı, sosyal destek ve problem çözme yaklaşımları arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi. Eğitim ve Bilim, 38(167), 226-240. Retrived from, http://213.14.10.181/index.php/EB/article/view/1757/479

Baxter, A., Vos, T., Scott, K., Ferrari, A., & Whiteford, H. (2014). The global burden of anxiety disorders in 2010. Psychological Medicine ,44, 2363–2374. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0033291713003243

Beidel, D. C. & Turner, S. M. (1998). Shy children, phobic adults. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Beidel, D. C. (1991). Social phobia and over anxiety disorder in school-age children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 30, 545–552. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199107000-00003

Birmaher, B., Khetarpal, S., Brent, D., Cully, M., Balach, L., Kaufman, J. & Neer, S. M. (1997). The screen for child anxiety related emotional disorders (SCARED): Scale construction and psychometric characteristics. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(4), 545-553. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199704000-00018

Bodden, D. H., Bögels, S.M., &Muris, P. (2009). The diagnostic utility of the screen for child anxiety related emotional disorders-71 (SCARED-71). Behavior Research and Therapy, 47(5),418-425. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2009.01.015

Browne, M.W. & Cudeck R. (1993). Alternative ways of accessing model fit. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publication.

Cartwright-Hatton, S., Mc Nicol, K., &Doubleday, E. (2006). Anxiety in a neglected population: Prevalence of anxiety disorders in pre-adolescent children. Clinical Psychology Review, 26(7), 817-833. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2005.12.002

Castellanos, D. & Hunter, T. (1999). Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. Southern Medical Journal, 92, 946–953. Retrieved from https://europepmc.org/article/med/10548164

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. NJ: Erlbaum, Hillsdal.

Cole, D. A., Peeke, L. G., Martin, J. M., Truglio, R., & Seroczynski, A. D. (1998). A longitudinal look at the relation between depression and anxiety in children and adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66(3), 451-460. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.66.3.451

Costello, E. J., Mustillo, S., Erkanli, A., Keeler, G., & Angold, A. (2003). Prevalence and development of psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 60, 837–844. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.60.8.837

Costello, J, E. (1989). Child psychiatric disorders and their correlates: A primary care pediatric sample. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 28(6), 851-855. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-198911000-00007

Craske, M. G. (1997). Fear and anxiety in children and adolescents. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 61(2), 4-36. Retrieved from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9149463/

Çakmakçı, F. (2004). Validity and reliability study of the Screening for Anxiety Disorders in Children. [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Kocaeli University –Kocaeli, Turkey.

Çölümlü, G. M. (2014). The psychometric properties of the Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale. [Unpublished master dissertation]. Bahçeşehir University – İstanbul

Demir, T., Eralp-Demir, D., Türksoy, N., Özmen, E. & Uysal, Ö. (2000). Çocuklar için sosyal anksiyete ölçeğinin geçerlilik ve güvenilirliği. Düşünen Adam. 13(1), 42-48. Retrieved from https://dusunenadamdergisi.com.tr/storage/upload/pdfs/1588684503

Dubow, E. F. & Ullman, D. G. (1989). Assessing social support in elementary school children: The survey of children's social support. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, (1989), 18(1). 52-64. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp1801_7

Eisen, A. R. & Schaefer, C. E. (2007). Separation anxiety in children and adolescents: An individualized approach to assessment and treatment. New York: Guilford Press

Essau, C. A., Conradt, J.& Petermann, F. (2000). Frequency, comorbidity, and psychosocial impairment of anxiety disorders in German adolescents. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 14(3), 263-279. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0887-6185(99)00039-0

Fuentes-Rodriguez, Gema., Saez-Castillo, A. J. & Garcia-Lopez, L. J. (2018). Psychometric properties of the social anxiety subscale of the Youth Anxiety Measure for DSM-5 (YAM-5-I-SAD) in a clinical sample of Spanish-speaking adolescents. Journal of Affective Disorders, 235, 68-71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2018.02.035

Fuentes-Rodriguez, G., Saez-Castillo, A. J., &Garcia-Lopez, L. J. (2018). Exploring the relevance of gender and age differences in the assessment of social fears in adolescence. Social Behavior and Personality, 36, 385–390. https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.2008.36.3.385

Gerbing, D. W., &Anderson, J. C. (1984). On the meaning of within-factor correlated measurement errors. Journal of Consumer Research, 11(1). 572-580. https://doi.org/10.1086/208993

Gökkaya, F. (2019). Altıncı sınıf öğrencilerinin sınav kaygısı ile annelerin sürekli kaygısı ve bilişsel çarpıtmaları arasındaki ilişki. Sosyal, Beşeri ve İdari Bilimler Dergisi, 2(9),621-634. Retrieved from https://sobibder.org/index.php/sobibder/article/view/52

Gökler, I. (2007). Çocuk ve ergenler için sosyal destek değerlendirme ölçeği Türkçe formunun uyarlama çalışması: Faktör yapısı, geçerlik ve güvenirliği. Çocuk ve Gençlik Ruh Sağlığı Dergisi, 42(1), 43-54. Retrieved from https://app.trdizin.gov.tr/publication/paper/detail/TnprMU5qUTA

Güler, N. (2012). Eğitimde ölçme ve değerlendirme (4.Baskı). Ankara: Pegem A Yayıncılık.

Güloğlu, B. (2006). The effect of a cognitive behavioral group counseling program on the learned resourcefulness level and automatic thought patterns of elementary school students. [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Middle East Technical University-Ankara.

İsaoğlu, J. & Tuzcuoğlu, A. (2021). Suriye uyruklu üniversite öğrencilerinde psikolojik dayanıklılık, yalnızlık ile kaygı arasındaki ilişkide bilişsel üçlünün aracı rolü. Marmara Üniversitesi Atatürk Eğitim Fakültesi Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi, 53(53), 399-424. https://doi.org/10.15285/maruaebd.731606

Jacobs, L.& Joseph, S. (1997). Cognitive triad inventory and its association with symptoms of depression and anxiety in adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences, 22(5), 769-770. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(96)00257-7

Jacobi, F., Wittchen, H.-U., Holting, C., Hofler, M., Pfister, H., Muller, N. & Lieb, R. (2004). Prevalence, co-morbidity and correlates of mental disorders in the general population: Results from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (GHS). Psychological Medicine, 34(4), 597–611. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0033291703001399

Karalar, M., Kumcağız, H.&İşi, N. (2018) Erinlerde sosyal destek ve sosyal kaygı arasındaki ilişki. 20. Uluslararası Psikolojik Danışma ve Rehberlik Kongresi, Canik, Samsun, Türkiye

Kaslow, N. J.,Stark, K. D., Printz, B., Livingston, R., &Ling Tsai, S. (1992). Cognitive Triad Inventory for Children: development and relation to depression and anxiety. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 21(4), 339-347. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp2104_3

Keller, M. B., Lavori, P. W., Wunder, J., Beardslee, W. R., Schwartz, C. E., &Roth, J. (1992). Chronic course of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents, Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 100-110. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199207000-00003

Kessler, R. C., Berglund, P., Demler, O., Jin, R., Merikangas, K. R., &Walters, E. E. (2005). Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry 62, 593–602. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.62.6.593

Kessler, R. C., Mc Gonagle, K. A., Zhao, S., Nelson, C. B., Hughes, M., Eshleman, S., & Kendler, K. S. (1994). Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States: results from the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51(1),8-19. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1994.03950010008002

La Greca, A. M.& Stone, W. L. (1993). Social anxiety scale for children-revised: Factor structure and concurrent validity. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 22(1), 17-27. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp2201_2

March, J. S., Parker, J. D., Sullivan, K., Stallings, P., & Conners, C. K. (1997). The Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC): factor structure, reliability, and validity. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry,36(4). 554-565. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199704000-00019

Marsh, H. W., Balla, J. R., & Hau, K. T. (1996). An evaluation of incremental fit indices: A clarification of mathematical and empirical properties. Advanced structural equation modeling. Issues and Techniques, 315-353.

Messer, S. C. & Beidel, D. C. (1994). Psychosocial correlates of childhood anxiety disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 33, 975-983. doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199409000-00007

Muris, P.& Ollendick, T. H. (2015). Children who are anxious in silence: a review on selective mutism, the new anxiety disorder in DSM-V. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 18(2), 151-169. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10567-015-0181-y

Muris, P.& Steerneman, P. (2001). The revised version of the screen for child anxiety related emotional disorders (SCARED‐R): First evidence for its reliability and validity in a clinical sample. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 40(1), 35-44. https://doi.org/10.1348/014466501163463

Muris, P., Dreessen, L., Bögels, S., Weckx, M. & Van Melick, M. (2004). A questionnaire for screening a broad range of DSM‐defined anxiety disorder symptoms in clinically referred children and adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45(4), 813-820. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00274.x

Muris, P., Mannens, J., Peters, L., & Meesters, C. (2017). The Youth Anxiety Measure for DSM-5 (YAM-5): Correlations with anxiety, fear, and depression scales in non-clinical children. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 51,72-78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2017.06.001.

Muris, P.,Simon, E., Lijphart, H., Bos, A., Hale, W., & Schmeitz, K. (2017).The youth anxiety measure for DSM-5 (YAM-5): development and first psychometric evidence of a new scale for assessing anxiety disorders symptoms of children and adolescents. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 48(1), 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-016-0648-1

Ollendick, T. H. (1983). Reliability and validity of the revised fear survey schedule for children (FSSC-R). Behavior Research and Therapy, 21(6), 685-692. https://doi.org/10.1016/0005-7967(83)90087-6

Orgilés, M.,Méndez, X., Espada, J. P., Carballo, J. L. & Piqueras, J. A. (2012).Anxiety disorder symptoms in children and adolescents: Differences by age and gender in a community sample. Revista de Psiquiatría y Salud Mental (English Edition), 5(2), 115-120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rpsmen.2012.01.005

Özbek, G. & Uyumaz, G. (2020). The impact of dialogic teaching on academic success and anxiety regarding mathematics courses. Psycho-Educational Research Reviews. 9.(2). 22-38. Retrieved from https://www.journals.lapub.co.uk/index.php/perr/article/view/1454.

Öztürk, A. (2014). Sorumluluk tutumu ve aileden algılanan sosyal desteğin sosyal kaygıyı yordamadaki rolü ve etkisi. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 29(3), 137-152. Retrieved from https://app.trdizin.gov.tr/publication/paper/detail/TWpNek5qZzFOUT09

Özusta, Ş. (1995). Çocuklar için Durumluk-Sürekli Kaygı Envanteri uyarlama, geçerlik, güvenirlik çalışması. Türk Psikolojisi Dergisi, 1, 32-44. Retrieved from www.psikolog.org.tr/tr/yayinlar/dergiler/1031828/ tpd1300443319950000m000289.pdf

Pfeffer, C. R., Lipkins, R., Plutchik, R., & Mizruchi, M. (1988). Normal children at risk for suicidal behavior: A two-year follow-up study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 27(1), 34-41. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-198801000-00006

Pollack, M. H.,Otto, M. W., Sabatino, S., Majcher, D., Worthington, J. J., McArdle, E. T., &Rosenbaum, J. F. (1996). Relationship of childhood anxiety to adult panic disorder: Correlates and influence on course. American Journal of Psychiatry, 153,376–381. https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.153.3.376

Polikandrioti, M.,Tzirogiannis, K., Zyga, S., Koutelekos, I., Vasilopoulos, G., Theofilou, P., & Panoutsopoulos, G. (2018). Effect of anxiety and depression on the fatigue of patients with a permanent pacemaker. Archives of medical sciences. Atherosclerotic Diseases, 3, 8-17. https://doi.org/10.5114/amsad.2018.73231

Regier, D. A., Myers, J. K., Kramer, M., Robins, L. N., Blazer, D. G., Hough, R. L., ... & Locke, B. Z. (1984). The NIMH Epidemiologic Catchment Area program: historical context, major objectives, and study population characteristics. Archives of General Psychiatry, 41(10), 934-941. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1001/archpsyc.1984.01790210016003

Reynolds, C. R. & Richmond, B. O. (1978). What I think and feel: a revised measure of children’s manifest anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Children Psychology, 6, 271–280. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00919131

Shevlin, M. &Miles, J. N. (1998). Effects of sample size, model specification and factor loadings on the GFI in confirmatory factor analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 25(1),85-90. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(98)00055-5

Simon, E., Bos, A. E., Verboon, P., Smeekens, S. & Muris, P. (2017). Psychometric properties of the Youth Anxiety Measure for DSM-5 (YAM-5) in a community sample. Personality and Individual Differences, 116, 258-264. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.04.058

Soltani, E., Bazrafshan, A., Sarani, E. M., Hedayati, A. & Sheikholeslami, S. S. (2020). Psychometric properties of the Persian Version of Youth anxiety measure for DSM-5 (YAM-5) in nonclinical sample. Archives of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, 4, 58-65. https://doi.org/10.12740/APP/118576

Sönmez, G. & Kurtoglu, M. (2021). Impact of perfectionism and self-compassion feelings of undergraduate students on their foreign language speaking anxiety. Psycho-Educational Research Reviews, 10(2), 230-240. Retrieved from https://www.journals.lapub.co.uk/index.php/perr/article/view/1769.

Spence, S. H. (1998). A measure of anxiety symptoms among children. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36(5), 545-566. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7967(98)00034-5

Spielberger, C.D., Gorsuch, R. L. & Lushene, R. (1983). Manual for State Trait Anxiety Inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists’ Press.

Strauss, C. C., Frame, C. L., & Forehand, R. (1987). Psychosocial impairment associated with anxiety in children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 16(3), 235-239. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp1603_8

Strauss, C. C., Lease, C. A., Last, C. G., & Francis, G. (1988). Over anxious disorder: An examination of developmental differences. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 16(4), 433-443. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00914173

Tabachnick, . G. & Fidell, L. S. (2001). Using multivariate statistics. Vol. 4. Boston: Allyn and Bacon

Tezbaşaran, A.A. (1996). Likert tipi ölçek geliştirme kılavuzu. Ankara: Türk Psikologlar Derneği Yayınları.

Teze, S. & Arslan, E. (2016). Ayrılık Kaygısı Değerlendirme Ölçeği Çocuk/Ebeveyn Formu geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması. International Journal of Social Science, 48, 333-344. https://dx.doi.org/10.9761/JASSS3481

Turner, S. M., Beidel, D. C. & Costello, A. (1987). Psychopathology in the offspring of anxiety disorders patients”. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 229–235. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.55.2.229

Wittchen, H-U., Gloster, A. T., Beesdo‐Baum, K., Fava, G. A., & Craske, M. G. (2010). Agoraphobia: a review of the diagnostic classificatory position and criteria. Depression and Anxiety, 27(2), 113-133. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.20646

Wittchen, H-U. & Essau, C. A.(1993). Epidemiology of anxiety disorders. In P. J. Wilner (Eds.), Psychiatry (pp. 1-25). Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Company.

Wittchen, H.-U., Essau, C. A., & Krieg, J-C. (1991). Anxiety disorders: similarities and differences of comorbidity in treated and untreated groups. British Journal of Psychiatry, 159(12), 23-33. https://doi.org/10.1192/S0007125000296219

Yuan, K.H., & Bentler, P. M. (1998). Robust mean and covariance structure analysis. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 51(1), 63-88. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8317.1998.tb00667.x

Additional Files

Published

2022-08-04

How to Cite

Çelikkaleli, Öner, & Demir, S. (2022). Psychometric Features of the First Part of the Youth Anxiety Measure (Yam-5-I) in the Turkish Children’s Sample. Psycho-Educational Research Reviews, 11(2), 281–295. https://doi.org/10.52963/PERR_Biruni_V11.N2.18