Psycho-Educational Research Reviews <p><span style="font-weight: bolder; font-size: 0.875rem;">Publisher: Biruni University (Faculty of Education)</span></p> <p><strong>Psycho-Educational Research Reviews Journal (PERR, ISSN: 2634-7172) </strong>is affiliated with Biruni University (Faculty of Education), Istanbul, Turkey.</p> <p>Psycho-Educational Research Reviews, formerly known as the <em>International Journal of Psycho-Educational Sciences </em>[ISSN 2325-775X], is an academic journal published since 2012 constantly, without delays, 3 times a year.</p> <p><strong><em>Publication Frequency</em></strong><strong>: </strong>Three issues are published triennially: in <strong><em>April</em></strong>, <strong><em>August</em></strong>, and <strong><em>December</em></strong>. The authors can get free <a href="">access to articles online via</a></p> <p><strong><em>Deadlines</em></strong><strong>:</strong> Manuscripts are accepted throughout the year. However, the volume/issue in which your article will be published depends on the successful completion of the evaluation process. If it ends positively, the article is queued to be published in the next possible issue. PERR reserves the right to pause the acceptance of articles by making an announcement in cases where there is a heavy load of articles.</p> <p><strong><em>Publication</em></strong><strong> <em>Cost</em>: </strong>Publication process in PERR is <strong>without fees</strong>. There are no overt or hidden charges throughout the entire publishing process.</p> <p><strong><em>PERR is Indexed in:</em></strong> ERIC<a href=" https:/;Psycho-Educational+Research+Reviews">,</a> <a href=";field=all&amp;text=Psycho-Educational%20Research%20Reviews">Türk, Eğitim İndeksi </a>(Index of Turkish Education)<a href="">,</a> <a href="">Index Copernicus,</a> <a href=" http:/">The British Library Bodleian Libraries - University of Oxford</a><a href="">,</a> <a href=";vid=44CAM_PROD&amp;lang=en_US">Cambridge University Library,</a> <a href=" https:/;rn=2">Library Hub Discover,</a> <a href="">BASE</a> (Universität Bielefeld)<a href="">,</a> <a href="">Idealonline, </a><a href="">Universitätsbibliothek Leipzig (UBL),</a> <a href=";colors=7&amp;lang=de&amp;jq_type1=QS&amp;jq_term1=Psycho-Educational+Research+reviews">Universitätsbibliothek Regensburg (UBR), </a><a href=";fbclid=IwAR0Yyhl2gokDZUS4dnLJLnWIKCauM_GOh6A7qfZ0fj_p4B-dj_p4B-qrC_p4B">Hamburg University of Aplied Sciences,</a> <a href=";view=full">Zeitschriftendatenbank (ZDB),</a> <a href="">Google Scholars, </a><a href="">WorldCat,</a> <a href="">ROAD,</a> <a href="">CiteSeerX,</a> <a href="">BING</a><br /><strong><em>ULAKBIM TR Dizin</em></strong> <em>Indexation</em> application has also been made.</p> <p><strong>NOTE</strong>: <em>Since our journal move to a new publisher (Biruni University) it is <strong>ERIC</strong>’s working practice to review the journal again when new content is published with different publisher. ERIC and Biruni University will establish an agreement with the new publisher. This is stated on page 8 of the <strong>ERIC</strong> Selection Policy. Therefore <strong>ERIC</strong> has assigned Psycho-Educational Research Reviews (PERR) to Spring 2023 review cycle to allow time for a few issues to be published with Biruni University. PERR Journal is indexed in the ERIC database until the end of 2022. However,<strong> the continuation of the indexing of the journal as of 2023 has been discussed between our new publisher Biruni University and ERIC. The decision will be announced in Spring 2023</strong>. </em><em>Thank you for your understanding.</em></p> <p><br /><strong>General Characteristics of PERR</strong></p> <p><strong><em>Purpose and Objectives</em></strong></p> <p>Psycho-Educational Research Reviews (PERR) is a scientific, scholarly journal reporting original contributions that advance knowledge in social sciences with emphasis on educational issues explored in its sub-disciplines such as:</p> <ul> <li>primary education</li> <li>educational sciences</li> <li>psychological counseling &amp; guidance (with educational dimension)</li> <li>educational psychology</li> <li>special education</li> <li>sociology of education &amp; social pedagogy (including social work issues)</li> <li>cultural education</li> <li>early childhood education </li> <li>higher education, adult, vocational, alternative, continuing education (including elderly students)</li> <li>distance education; technology &amp; education</li> <li>language education</li> <li>comparative and international education</li> <li>multilingual and multicultural education</li> <li>historical, philosophical, and social foundations of education</li> <li>educational administration</li> </ul> <p>Topics may be related to the problems in the social sciences regarding education or its sub-disciplines. Such contributions may include:</p> <ul> <li>Theoretical original articles</li> <li>Theoretical reviews</li> <li>Reports of empirical research: quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods</li> <li>Case reports</li> </ul> <p><strong><em>Editorial Board has decided that studies that include only scale development and validation are not acceptable . Original studies where the practicality of the scale is tested may be accepted for review after. </em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>Process</em></strong>: Submitted papers will appear online after initial qualification by the editorial team who evaluate: meeting the scope, quality criteria, detailed publishing standards and editorial policies, and two double-blind reviews. All submitted articles are subjected to a smilarity (plagiarism) check through <strong><em>ITHENTICATE</em></strong>. Authors are required to submit this similarity file at submission. The similarity should be 15 percent or less, and the similarity of each citation should be no more than 3 percent.</p> <p>A rigorous and constructive independent and <strong>double-blind review</strong> process is in place. Submitted manuscripts are reviewed by the Editor-in-Chief for focus of concern and then forwarded to the Editors. The Editor transfers the article to the technical review team and ensures that it is reviewed in terms of template and journal guidelines. This process takes a maximum of one month. Then, if the article meets these qualifications, it is forwarded to the field editor. After a rigorous evaluation by the field editors for a maximum of 15 days, the articles are sent to at least two reviewers from two different universities who are experts in their fields. This process takes approximately one month for the first round and an additional 15 days for the second round. All these processes may take 4 to 12 weeks depending on the evaluation processes of the referees. If needed, the field editor can also reassign a different reviewer.</p> <p><strong><em>International focus</em></strong>: PERR has editorial board members, reviewers, and authors from, Europe, North and South America, Africa, and Asia, e.g., Turkey, Egypt, Poland, UAE, United States, Argentine, Cyprus, Palestine, Japan, China, Brazil, Croatia, Jordan, Syria, Germany, Singapore, India, Greece, Spain, Peru, Colombia, Italy, Lebanon, Algeria, United Kingdom, Kosovo, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.</p> <p><strong>Brief Submission Guideline</strong></p> <p>All manuscripts should be prepared in accordance with the APA7 style as outlined in the <a href="">American Psychological Association Publication Manual (7th ed.)</a>. Manuscripts should be single-spaced, including references, notes, abstracts, quotations, and tables. <a href=""><strong>(TEMPLATE)</strong></a></p> <p>Authors should prepare <a href=""><strong>a Title Page</strong></a> firstly, and all details (name, institutional affiliation, mailing address, telephone number, e-mail address, and ORCID id). should be given in correct order in the metadata, as well as on this title page. <strong><a href="">(Title Page)</a></strong></p> <p>The (blind review) full text manuscript must not contain any author info and be typed in Calibri font size 11point normally. Manuscripts should not exceed 25 pages (single-spaced, max. 10.000 words), including abstract (around 250 words), tables, figures, and references. Tables and references (10point, including Table titles) should follow APA7 style and be single-spaced. Manuscripts should not be simultaneously submitted to another journal, nor should they have been published elsewhere in substantially similar form or with considerably similar content.</p> <p>The ethical committee approval must be obtained in studies that are conducted clinically and experimentally with humans that require an ethical committee decision. This approval should be submitted at submission.</p> <p>All submissions will be reviewed initially by the editors and technical team for appropriateness to PERR. If the Editor in Chief and Editor(s) considers the manuscript fits to scope of the journal, it will then be directed to Editors. The editors examine the article and direct it to the relevant field editor in the relevant field for double-blind review process. The article evaluation process proceeds entirely under the responsibility of the field editors. The decision will generally be made by the field editors based on the reviewers’ recommendations. Opinions of the field editors are extremely important when the editor-in-chief and journal editors decide to accept or reject the article.</p> <p>All process -submission, review, and revision is carried out via the journal submission system. The submissions should be written using MSWord or compatible word processors.</p> <p>A DOI number is assigned to each article whose process has ended for publication in the issue. This final decision belongs to the editorial board.</p> <p>Authors who want to publish articles in PERR are recommended to visit the <a href=""></a> website and access all necessary information.</p> <p><strong>Open Access Policy</strong></p> <p>PERR defines Open Access in the light of the principles defined by the Budapest Open Access Initiative and accepts the definition of <a href="">BOAI</a>.</p> <p>With the content it publishes, PERR aims to contribute to the support and development of science with the Open Access policy. <a href="">Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)</a>, provided that the source is cited in known standards, all rights of use (online linking, copying, printing, reproduction in any physical medium, distribution, etc.) other than for commercial use and content change (unless otherwise stated in the relevant content). It is made available through the International License (CC BY-NC-ND) license. For commercial use of the content, permission from the editorial board is required.</p> <p><strong>Similarity Report (Plagiarism)</strong></p> <p>In accordance with the publishing policies, each study is subject to plagiarism detection (ITHENTICATE) by the journal's technical team before going through the "Blind Review Process" in terms of the academic and ethical integrity of the study. Authors are reqired to submit/upload the similarity reports of their own manuscripts. If the author could not do it, the journal team can receive a similarity report through ithenticate in case of a declaration. The maximum similarity rate in an article may be 15%. It should be also noted that the maximum rate of each citation is 3%.</p> <p><strong>Ethical Approval</strong></p> <p>All authors are expected to declare that they comply with ethical principles before, during and after their research in their submissions. The studies which are conducted clinically and experimentally with humans and animals should have an ethical committee approval. As of 2023, every author who wants to submit an article to our journal, regardless of the year in which the study was conducted, is required to upload the Ethical Approval Document of the study. </p> <p><strong>Layout and Galley</strong></p> <p>PERR aims to publish every article whose evaluation process is successful in order to maintain journal standards. Therefore, all checks of completed articles should be done by the author. Final checks are made by our technical team. If deemed necessary, the manuscript can be sent back to the author(s). If the author does not fulfill their responsibilities at this stage, the journal board has the right not to publish the study.</p> <p><strong>ISSN: 2634-7172</strong></p> Biruni University en-US Psycho-Educational Research Reviews 2634-7172 Human-Social Robot Interaction, Anthropomorphism and Ontological Boundary Problem in Education <p>Artificial intelligence and robotics technologies do not manufacture robots only for industrial use, but also for healthcare, marketing, tourism and accommodation industries where social interaction is prevalent. Service robots are social robots that interact directly with individuals and to fulfill the physical, cognitive, emotional and social needs of individuals. Recently, it was observed that the number of studies on the employment of social robots in education has increased. These studies reported positive findings on the employment of social robots in educational settings; however, they also indicated certain problems. One of these problems was the ontological boundary problem due to the anthropomorphic design of these robots. Certain studies on human-social robot interaction demonstrated that the human-machine distinction has blurred, humans started to attribute anthropogenic traits to these robots such as intention, emotion and purpose, while these studies categorized these robots as live or hybrid. Anthropomorphizing the robots and the ambiguity of their ontological category could lead to problems such as excessive attachment, social isolation, and violation of privacy, and perceptions of the individuals about their existence could be altered. The present article aimed to provide information about the studies conducted on the employment of social robots in education, analyze the advantages and disadvantages of human-social robot interaction based on anthropomorphism and ontological boundary problem. Finally, certain recommendations are presented about the employment of social robots in education.</p> Mücahit Gültekin Copyright (c) 2022 Psycho-Educational Research Reviews 2022-12-10 2022-12-10 11 3 751 773 10.52963/PERR_Biruni_V11.N3.11 Examination of Motivation Scales: Is the Purpose Academic Promotion or the Need to Measure Psychological Constructs? <p>The importance of measurement tools in education and psychology is indisputable. It is necessary to measure the affective characteristics of individuals in a valid and reliable manner. Numerous measurement tools have been developed to measure many psychological variables concerning humans. The aim of this research is to examine scale development studies in a technical sense and to determine the usage frequency of the reviewed studies. In line with the determined purpose, 43 motivation scales developed to measure motivation in various fields from the Turkey Index of Measurement Tools database were examined. In this study, which was designed as document analysis, one of the qualitative research designs, the data were examined through the forms developed by the researchers. According to the results, it was determined that there were serious technical errors in the development of measurement tools. It was determined that these errors are mainly in the concepts of test tryout and pilot application, exploratory factor analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis, which seriously affect the psychometric properties of the scales. In addition, when the usage frequencies of the scales were examined, more than half of the scales remained as just development work. Only 19 of the tools examined for motivation were used in other research studies. It is recommended that researchers work in accordance with the standard test development steps in developing scales. Before starting to develop a scale, it is recommended that researchers determine if the scale is really needed with a rigorous literature review.</p> Asiye Şengül Avşar Fulya Barış Pekmezci Copyright (c) 2022 Psycho-Educational Research Reviews 2022-12-10 2022-12-10 11 3 774 791 10.52963/PERR_Biruni_V11.N3.19 Elementary School Students’ Ways of Thinking in Geometry Through the Lens of Geometric Habits of Mind <p>Geometric habits of mind include several ways of thinking that can be used in the learning and teaching of geometry as well as the reasoning ability in the process of solving the geometry problem. Based on this framework, revealing students' geometric reasoning process can shed light to researchers and teachers in the selection and design of methods and materials. This study is aimed to investigate the geometric problem-solving processes of elementary school students based on the GHoM. In this qualitative study case study design was adopted. The participants of the study consisted of six elementary school students. In the interviews the students can easily use reasoning with the relationship GHoM in all tasks. Generalizing and investigating invariants habits can be seen in some of the tasks. However balancing exploration and reflection habits were appeared rare when compared to other GHoMs. It can be suggested that to reveal the ways of reasoning of the students, non-routine and open-ended geometry tasks similar to those designed for this research can be utilized in mathematics classes.</p> Deniz Özen Ünal Serhan Ulusan Ayşe Gürlek Copyright (c) 2022 Psycho-Educational Research Reviews 2022-12-10 2022-12-10 11 3 393 411 10.52963/PERR_Biruni_V11.N3.10 The Relations between Career Adaptability, Career Engagement, and Life Satisfaction <p>Based on the Career Construction Model of Adaptation (CCMA), this study aimed to examine the relations between career adaptability, career engagement, and life satisfaction in Turkish young adults. Participants were university students, 410 Turkish young adults (75.9% females and 24.1% males), aged 18-26 years (M = 20.80, SD = 1.50). Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypotheses of the present study. After controlling the perceived socioeconomic status, career adaptability was found to be associated with career engagement and life satisfaction. Moreover, career engagement was related to life satisfaction. The result of the structural equation model and bootstrapping analyses showed that career engagement fully mediated the relationship between career adaptability and life satisfaction. The results of the study indicated that engagement in proactive career behaviors explains how career adaptability and life satisfaction are related. The results of this study improve our understanding of the link between career adaptability and life satisfaction, with particular emphasis on the role of career engagement as a mediator. The result was discussed regarding the relevant literature and the implications were provided.</p> Ersoy Çarkıt Copyright (c) 2022 Psycho-Educational Research Reviews 2022-12-10 2022-12-10 11 3 412 425 10.52963/PERR_Biruni_V11.N3.02 An Analysis of Some Variables as the Predictors of Children's Overall Self-Worth Levels <p style="font-weight: 400;">In this study, it was examined whether family relationship perceived by children, parental behaviors and irrational beliefs of parents predicted overall self-worth levels of children. A total of 1500 people participated in the study, including 500 students attending the 4th grade in Hatay and their parents. Personal Information Form, Parent Irrational Beliefs Scale (PIBS), Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (APQ), Family Relationship Scale for Children (FRSC) and Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC) were used as data collection tools in the study. In order to analyze the data, multiple linear regression analysis was conducted. According to the results obtained, there is a significant relationship between parents' irrational beliefs, parenting behaviors, children's perception of family relationships and general self-worth. Supportive family relationship, discouraging family relationship, unrealistic expectations of parents, father’s parental involvement, poor monitoring/supervision and corporal punishment behaviors predict the overall self-worth level of the children. The variable that significantly predicts children's overall self-worth, on the other hand, is supportive family relationship. The results of the research were discussed in the light of the literature.</p> Gözde Akşab Fulya Türk Copyright (c) 2022 Psycho-Educational Research Reviews 2022-12-10 2022-12-10 11 3 426 442 10.52963/PERR_Biruni_V11.N3.03 The Relationships between Teacher and Student Qualities in TIMSS 2019: A Path Analysis Model <p>In this study, the model that examined the relationship between teacher and student qualities was tested based on the teacher and student questionnaire in the TIMSS 2019 Turkey sample. The variables of experience, participation in professional development, professional development needs, school academic emphasis, instructional quality in the teacher questionnaire, as well as the instructional clarity, instructional climate, sense of school belonging and mathematics achievement variables in the student questionnaire were investigated. Data of 171 teachers and 3841 students were used. In the study, the path coefficients of the relations between the variables and the goodness of fit values for the model created were interpreted. All of the path coefficients between the variables had a significant and moderate effect. When the standardized path coefficients in the model were examined, the highest value (β = 0.48) was obtained on the way that instructional clarity predicted sense of school belonging and the lowest value (β = 0.14) was obtained on the way that the participation in professional development predicted the instructional climate. When the fit indices were examined, it was concluded that the model-data fit of the established model was perfect. In addition, it was determined that 33% of the variance in the mathematics achievement and 27% of the variance in the sense of school belonging were explained by direct effects in the model.</p> Melek Gülşah Şahin Özge Ceren Çelik Yıldız Yıldırım Copyright (c) 2022 Psycho-Educational Research Reviews 2022-12-10 2022-12-10 11 3 443 461 10.52963/PERR_Biruni_V11.N3.04 Examination of the Relationship between Educational Philosophy, Critical Thinking, Classroom Engagement and Academic Achievement <p>Educational philosophy addresses systematic ideas and conceptions in the educational manner. The purpose of this study was to examine the contributions of educational philosophy, critical thinking and classroom engagement to academic achievement among pre-service teachers by utilizing structural equation modelling. A total of 444 teacher pre-service teachers who volunteered from a state university in Turkey participated in the study. Data collection tools were Educational Belief Scale, UF/EMİ Critical Thinking Disposition Instrument and Classroom Engagement Inventory. Analysis revealed that the hypothesized model explained 22% variance of academic achievement. Path coefficients indicated that some educational philosophies were significantly related to critical thinking dispositions. Innovativeness in critical thinking disposition significantly predicted all dimensions of classroom engagement. Educational implications were discussed.</p> Özgür Ulubey Muhammet Mustafa Alpaslan Copyright (c) 2022 Psycho-Educational Research Reviews 2022-12-10 2022-12-10 11 3 462 479 10.52963/PERR_Biruni_V11.N3.05 Examining the Relationships between the Problematic Internet Consumption and Internet Engagement Profiles of Young Adults <p>Today, individuals frequently spend time on the internet for different purposes. However, differences in internet usage purposes also create differences between the internet engagement profile. It is known that some user profiles are exposed to possible negative outcomes of the internet. The aim of this research is to develop useful scales that can be used to determine individuals' problematic internet consumption and internet engagement profiles. The research group consists of 889 university students which participated in the research as volunteers from 54 different universities. EFA and CFA outputs were evaluated to examine the validity of the problematic internet consumption (PIC) and internet engagement profile (IEP) scales developed within the scope of the research. According to the percentage of variance accounted, the factors of the PIC are Dysfunctionality in Daily Life (23%), Loss of Control (18%), and Fear of Missing Out (10%), respectively. According to the percentage of variance accounted, the factors of the IEP are Passive Consumer (16%), Information Seeker (13%), Social User (12%), and Content Creator (11%), respectively. As a result of the study, it was determined that PIC score of individuals who were able to endure the lack of access to the internet for a shorter time were significantly higher. Besides, individuals who spend more time on the internet every day have significantly higher PIC score. The results obtained from the research were discussed within the scope of the literature and various suggestions were made.</p> Ahmet Salih Şimşek Ömer Faruk Akbulut Copyright (c) 2022 Psycho-Educational Research Reviews 2022-12-10 2022-12-10 11 3 480 497 10.52963/PERR_Biruni_V11.N3.07 The Mediating Role of Forgiveness in the Context of Interpersonal Relationship Styles and Conflict Resolution Tendencies <p>The aim of this research is to examine the mediating role of university students’ forgiveness themselves, others and the situation in the relationship between interpersonal relationship styles and tendency to resolve conflicts of university students. The study group of this research consists of 409 students who are studying at various undergraduate departments in Gaziantep University. "Conflict Resolution Tendency Scale","Heartland Forgiveness Scale", "Interpersonal Relationship Style Scale" and "Personal Information Form" prepared by the researcher were used as data collection tools in the research. In the analysis of the data, structural equation modeling was applied by using AMOS program. Analyzes in the research have shown that the relationship between nourishing relationship style and conflict resolution tendency is significant in the positive direction. According to the results of the research, in the model in which the intermediary role of forgiveness is examined between interpersonal relationship styles and conflict resolution tendency, self-forgiveness and the forgiveness of others in relation to the nourishing relationship and the tendency to resolve conflict; the relationship between the toxic relationship style and the tendency to resolve conflict was found to be the partial mediator effect of self-forgiveness.</p> Yasemin Kaygas Zeynep Hamamcı Copyright (c) 2022 Psycho-Educational Research Reviews 2022-12-10 2022-12-10 11 3 498 512 10.52963/PERR_Biruni_V11.N3.08 The Effect of a Teacher Empowerment Programme on the Resilience Levels of Primary School Teachers <p>The aim of the study is to examine the effect of a Teacher Empowerment Programme on the resilience levels of primary school teachers working with disadvantaged students in Turkey and the views of teachers about the effectiveness of the programme. In the study, the Teacher Empowerment Programme which contains various protective factors was implemented on the participants in the experimental group, and no intervention was made in the control group. Five different data collection tools were used. In the data analysis, a two-way ANOVA for mixed measures with the SPSS 23 package program, descriptive analysis, and content analysis were utilised. The findings reveal that the programme was effective in resilience by developing the participants’ protective factor characteristics, self-esteem levels, and coping with stress attitudes. It was also concluded that the participants held positive views about the programme.</p> Nurtaç Üstündağ Kocakuşak Ruken Akar Vural Copyright (c) 2022 Psycho-Educational Research Reviews 2022-12-10 2022-12-10 11 3 513 529 10.52963/PERR_Biruni_V11.N3.09 American, German and Turkish Classroom Teachers’ Opinions about Character Education: A Cross-Cultural Study <p>The purpose of this survey research is to analyze and compare the views of classroom teachers on character education in Turkey, Germany and the U.S. In this study, in which descriptive survey method was used, data were collected from 419 teachers from three countries with questionnaire forms. The data were subjected to descriptive analysis. It was determined that character education is influenced by many factors such as family education level, media, internet, social and physical context, and that teachers in all three countries have similar views, only American teachers think differently that "social and physical context" is more important. Character education is mostly practiced in the USA, and to a lesser extent in Germany and Turkey. Teachers of three countries believe that Life &amp; Social studies are the most important lessons that contribute character education. However, character education should be integrated with other curricula with an interdisciplinary approach preferably. Various resources such as meetings, in-school posters, books and thematic projects are used in character education and American teachers use these resources more than other teachers. According to participants, techniques such as observation, interviews, and questionnaires may be used to determine whether character education goals have been achieved. It is seen that the majority of teachers in all three countries are not sure about the possibility to achieve the goals of character education. It may be stated that teachers do not have a very high level of belief in the level of realization of character education goals. According to German teachers, values are less important, but values are acquired at a similar rate, and for Turkish teachers values are very highly important, but not realized at the expected level. In conclusion, the views of teachers from different countries on character education have similar and different aspects.</p> Kerim Gündoğdu Erdal Bay Osman Mert Copyright (c) 2022 Psycho-Educational Research Reviews 2022-12-10 2022-12-10 11 3 530 552 10.52963/PERR_Biruni_V11.N3.1 Difficult Questions of Preschoolers’ with Different Socio-Economic Conditions and Their Parents’ Answers <p>The present is a qualitative study which aims to examine the difficult questions of preschoolers’ children with different socioeconomic conditions to their parents and the answers of the parents. 60 parents with different socioeconomic conditions whose children continue to preschool education in a province located in the central part of Turkey participated in the study. An interview form consisting of structured interview questions was used to in data collection. The data were analyzed with the content analysis technique. The results of the study showed that the children asked their parents difficult questions about daily life, religion, science/nature and sexuality/birth. The frequencies of children's difficult questions by themes showed difference according to socioeconomic conditions. Parents answered to the children's difficult questions with explanations or leaving the questions unanswered. Parents who did not answer the children's difficult questions used the strategies of passing off, saying that they will look into it, saying that they do not know and offering to look into it together. The frequencies of the strategies used by the parents when they did not answer the children's difficult questions differed based on socioeconomic conditions.</p> Serhat Gündoğdu Copyright (c) 2022 Psycho-Educational Research Reviews 2022-12-10 2022-12-10 11 3 553 566 10.52963/PERR_Biruni_V11.N3.12 What are the Regional Challenges for Inclusive Distance Education During COVID-19 Pandemic in Turkey? A Qualitative Analysis <p>Inclusive education has come to the agenda again due to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, research on rural-urban inequality in inclusive education during COVID-19 pandemic is limited. This study aims to reveal the regional challenges for inclusive distance education during COVID-19 pandemic in Turkey. We adopted qualitative research design and a case study model. We chose two different study group among undergraduate students both living in disadvantaged rural areas and living in socio-economically advantageous cities. The participants were 38 undergraduate students. This qualitative study was performed in 2021-2022 academic year. The results revealed that there were notable differences between the two groups’ views on the inclusiveness and effectiveness of distance education. The first group reported the challenges stemmed from disadvantaged economic conditions. The second group reported the problems such as lack of motivation, stress, mental fatigue, and trouble focusing. Distance education is seen non-inclusive and ineffective by the first group. The second group evaluates distance education as inclusive and sufficient. The participants also made suggestions to increase inclusiveness of distance education.</p> Şenol Sezer Ertuğ Can Copyright (c) 2022 Psycho-Educational Research Reviews 2022-12-10 2022-12-10 11 3 567 585 10.52963/PERR_Biruni_V11.N3.13 The Relationship between Teachers’ Perception of Organizational Cronyism and Organizational Dissent <p>This quantitative study investigates the relationship between teachers’ perception of organizational cronyism and their perception of organizational dissent. The population of the study includes 1206 teachers from all pre-school institutions, primary schools, secondary schools, high schools in the district of Kuşadası, the province of Aydın, Türkiye. The sample of the study has been selected by random sampling method and includes 378 teachers. The data has been collected by means of Perceived Organizational Cronyism Scale and Organizational Dissent Scale. The data has been analyzed through parametric statistical programs. The findings of the study reveal that the level of teachers’ perception of organizational cronyism is low, whereas their perception of organizational dissent is at medium level. There is a statistically significant difference between teachers’ perception of organizational cronyism and organizational dissent and the variables of subject of teaching, age, professional seniority, educational level, length of service with the same administrator, and union membership. Correlation analysis reveals that there is a negative weak correlation between teachers’ perception of organizational cronyism and their perception of organizational dissent.</p> Bertan Akyol Neşem Erkoç Copyright (c) 2022 Psycho-Educational Research Reviews 2022-12-10 2022-12-10 11 3 586 602 10.52963/PERR_Biruni_V11.N3.14 Evaluating Elementary Teacher Education Program in Terms of Affective Features Using Hammond’s Evaluation Model <p style="font-weight: 400;">In this study, elementary teacher education program was evaluated in terms of attitude, value, and academic motivation towards the teaching profession using Hammond’s evaluation model. Convergent parallel design of mixed method studies was employed. The qualitative component of the study included a total of 39 participants; 23 teacher candidates, 11 faculty members and five executive faculty members while the quantitative component of the study was carried out with 121 teacher candidates. The data were collected through “Academic Motivation Scale”, “Portrait Values Questionnaire”, “Teaching Profession Attitude Scale”, “document analysis, semi-structured interview forms, field notes, and observation forms. The results of the study indicated that although teacher candidates had high levels of attitude and motivation towards the profession, their attitude towards the course, thus motivation to attend classes, was low. Curriculum objectives for the affective domain were limited to a minimum, content was dense, and the faculty members mostly used expository teaching strategies such as traditional lecture method and question-answer technique.</p> İbrahim Karagöl Oktay Cem Adıgüzel Copyright (c) 2022 Psycho-Educational Research Reviews 2022-12-10 2022-12-10 11 3 603 622 10.52963/PERR_Biruni_V11.N3.15 Mindfulness, Valuing, and Emotion Regulation in the Prediction of Psychological Distress among University Students <p>The present study aims to examine the role of mindfulness, valuing (progress and obstruction), and strategies for emotion regulation (reappraisal and suppression) in prediction of psychological distress among university students. A total of 332 undergraduate students (237 females, 95 males) from the Faculty of Education of one state and one private university participated in the study. The data, which was analyzed by using hierarchical multiple regression, indicated that valuing and mindfulness were significant predictors of psychological distress. On the other hand, emotion regulation, which encompasses reappraisal and suppression, was seen to be an insignificant predictor of psychological distress. Among the variables, the obstruction subscale of valuing contributed most to the model. Overall, this study highlights that having a ‘value-based life’ and ‘mindful living’ are protective factors which may reduce the likelihood of experiencing high levels of psychological distress among university students. The results were discussed in the light of the literature.</p> Gökçen Aydın Fatma Zehra Ünlü Kaynakçı Copyright (c) 2022 Psycho-Educational Research Reviews 2022-12-10 2022-12-10 11 3 623 635 10.52963/PERR_Biruni_V11.N3.16 Evaluation of the Curriculum of the Information Technologies Lesson Designed with the Web-Based Reflective Thinking Activities <p>In this study, the aim is to evaluate the effect of the 6<sup>th</sup> grade Information Technologies lesson based on reflective thinking supported with web tools developed by the researchers to the academic achievement according to Eisner’s Educational Criticism Model (EECM). The method of this study is in mixed structure which includes both qualitative and quantitative research models. Sample of the study consists of 68 6<sup>th</sup> grade at a state school in district of South-Aegean in 2019-2020 academic year. While in the quantitative part of the study, as a model, pre-test, post-test and semi-experimental design with an experiment-control group were specified, in the qualitative part, case study method was used and data was analysed by using the steps of EECM, which has qualitative features. As data collection tool in the study; academic achievement test, semi-structured interview form used in the interviews with the teachers and the students and observation form to be used for the observations in the classrooms were used. In the result of the study, the curriculum had a positive effect on the academic achievement of the 6<sup>th</sup> grade students at the Information Technologies lesson and it was seen that this effect was a significant difference for the good of the experimental group. In the qualitative evaluation of the curriculum, description and interpretation according to the views of the participants and objectives, content, learning experiences and evaluation elements of the curriculum were evaluated.</p> Veysel Karani Ceylan Asuman Seda Saracaloğlu Copyright (c) 2022 Psycho-Educational Research Reviews 2022-12-10 2022-12-10 11 3 636 655 10.52963/PERR_Biruni_V11.N3.17 The Effects of Instructional Environments and Cognitive Abilities on Abstraction Performance <p>Abstraction is one of the building blocks in computer science (CS) and is described as omitting details and focusing on the necessary information. One of the approaches in teaching CS is puzzle based learning (PBL) approach which models problem solving process. Individual differences, on the other hand, exist as a mere fact in learning. Therefore, when designing instructional materials, it is essential to understand the interaction between individual differences along with the teaching paradigms. The first aim of this research is to investigate how students’ working memory capacities (WMCs) and different learning environments based on puzzle based learning affect students’ abstraction performance. 2X2 factorial design was utilized in the study. The second aim of the study was to investigate whether students’ logical reasoning capacities (LRCs) and abstraction ability capacities (AACs), in each learning environments, had an effect on students’ abstraction performances when their WMCs were controlled. According to the results of the research it was found that students’ gender, abstraction skills and the learning environments had no effect on students’ learning performances. In the other hand; the students with higher working memory capacities versus the students with low working memory capacities; the students with higher and medium logical reasoning level versus the students with lower logical reasoning level were found to have significantly higher learning performance. Also it was seen that logical reasoning levels of the students had predicted the learning performance but working memory performances of the students had not. </p> Fulya Torun Arif Altun Copyright (c) 2022 Psycho-Educational Research Reviews 2022-12-10 2022-12-10 11 3 656 674 10.52963/PERR_Biruni_V11.N3.18 Reflections of Pre-Service Teachers on Digital Material Design After Practising Digitally-Enhanced Instructional Events <p>Digital capacities of teachers are profoundly valued in present teaching activities because advanced technology demands to adapt and follow digital trends in education. In order to answer this call, initial teacher education (ITE) programs offer courses to promote multifaceted digital capacities of preservice teachers and enable them to design digitally-enhanced teaching materials and activities. This study supports the idea of improving digital learning outcomes of offered courses, Instructional Technologies in this case, with well-suited instructional events which are enriched with digital knowledge and practice in digital material design. Doing so, this case study aims to report 118 preservice teachers’ reflections on digital material design after they experiencing a 14-weeks period syllabus which combines digital tools/sources/environments and necessary pedagogy referring to Gagne’s Instructional Events. The study collected necessary data through self-evaluation forms consisting 5 open-ended questions. The results document that majority of the preservice teachers could successfully experience digital material design process according to an instructional flow, and they identify themselves as improved enough to practice teaching with digital materials and resources.</p> Güler Göçen Kabaran Bilge Aslan Altan Copyright (c) 2022 Psycho-Educational Research Reviews 2022-12-10 2022-12-10 11 3 675 691 10.52963/PERR_Biruni_V11.N3.20 Pre-Service Teachers’ Self-Efficacy Perceptions and Metacognitive Skills in Predicting the Measurement and Evaluation Course Achievement <p>The purpose of the current study is to determine the relationships between pre-service teachers’ measurement and evaluation course achievement, grade point average, gender, general self-efficacy perception of measurement and evaluation and metacognitive skills. The study group is comprised of 180 students having taken the measurement and evaluation course in the 2019-2020 academic year. As the data collection tool, the “Measurement and Evaluation Self-Efficacy Perception Scale for Pre-service Teachers” developed by Nartgün (2008) and the “Metacognitive Skills Scale” developed by Altındağ and Senemoğlu (2013) were used. The measurement and evaluation course achievement were calculated by taking 40% of the midterm and 60% of the final scores of students. While students were asked to create an original story by using the 24 basic concepts for the midterm exam, 6 open-ended items were given as homework for the final exam. The collected data were analyzed by using the hierarchical multiple regression analysis. The measurement and evaluation course achievement were taken as dependent variable; grade point average, gender, measurement and evaluation self-efficacy perception and the metacognitive skill scores were taken as independent variables. As a result, it was seen that grade point average in the first stage and the general self-efficacy perception in the second stage significantly predicted the measurement and evaluation course achievement.</p> Şeyma Uyar Neşe Öztürk Gübeş Copyright (c) 2022 Psycho-Educational Research Reviews 2022-12-10 2022-12-10 11 3 692 705 10.52963/PERR_Biruni_V11.N3.21 Teachers’ Views on Digital Addiction among Preschool Students <p>In this study, it is intended to reveal the views of teachers about the digital addiction of preschool students. To this end, a qualitative study was performed. A series of interviews were held with 20 preschool teachers working in kindergartens in Denizli city center in the 2021-2022 academic year. Specifically, the interviews sought to answer the following research questions: “What are the family- related causes of digital addiction?”; “What are the environmental causes of digital addiction?”; “What are the negative effects of digital addiction on students?” and “What precautions should be taken to prevent digital addiction?” The results denoted that causes of digital addiction among pre-school students are related to bad parental role models, parental indifference and lack of parental guidance.</p> Serhat Süral Copyright (c) 2022 Psycho-Educational Research Reviews 2022-12-10 2022-12-10 11 3 706 720 10.52963/PERR_Biruni_V11.N3.22 An Examination of Gifted Students' Perceptions of Their Social-Emotional Skills and Peer Relationships <p>Social-emotional skills are effective in the self-awareness and control of the individual's emotions. These skills should be evaluated together with peer relationships as they play an important role in the communication of the individual with other individuals around him/her. In this study, the social-emotional skill perceptions and peer relationships of gifted students were examined in the survey design. The study group consists of 216 gifted students who studied at Science and Arts Centers (SAC) in Turkey, where specially gifted students were selected through a national exam result, in the 2019-2020 academic year. The data were collected through The Scale of Perceived Social-Emotional Skills, The Friendship Qualities Scale, and the Personal Information Form. Results showed that there was a significant correlation between The Scale of Perceived Social-Emotional Skills and The Friendship Qualities Scale. In addition, this study found a significant correlation between the perceptions of social-emotional skills and the total scores of peer relations, conflict, help, and protection, which are sub-dimensions of peer relations.</p> Halil İbrahim Yıldırım Nilay Kayhan Copyright (c) 2022 Psycho-Educational Research Reviews 2022-12-10 2022-12-10 11 3 721 737 10.52963/PERR_Biruni_V11.N3.23 The Mediating Role of Self-Regulation Skills in the Relationship Between Social Skills and Problem Behaviors in the Early Childhood Period <p>The aim of this study is to examine the direct and indirect relationships between problem behaviors, social skills, and self-regulation skills of children in early childhood period. In this context, the mediating role of self-regulation skills between problem behavior and social skills was investigated. The relational research model, one of the quantitative research designs, was used in this study. The study group consisted of 104 children between the age of 66-72 months enrolled to any preschool program. The obtained data from the study were analyzed with the PROCESS macro and direct and indirect path coefficients in the regression models were subjected to the bootstrap analysis. As a result of the study, it was seen that the social skills and the self-regulation skills of children negatively predicted the problem behaviors. In addition, when the self-regulation skills were included in the model, it was concluded that the self-regulation skills were a partial mediator variable.</p> Fulya Ezmeci Nurbanu Parpucu Berrin Akman Copyright (c) 2022 Psycho-Educational Research Reviews 2022-12-10 2022-12-10 11 3 738 750 10.52963/PERR_Biruni_V11.N3.06