What are the Regional Challenges for Inclusive Distance Education During COVID-19 Pandemic in Turkey? A Qualitative Analysis





Inclusive education, Challenges, Access to education, Distance education


Inclusive education has come to the agenda again due to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, research on rural-urban inequality in inclusive education during COVID-19 pandemic is limited. This study aims to reveal the regional challenges for inclusive distance education during COVID-19 pandemic in Turkey. We adopted qualitative research design and a case study model. We chose two different study group among undergraduate students both living in disadvantaged rural areas and living in socio-economically advantageous cities. The participants were 38 undergraduate students. This qualitative study was performed in 2021-2022 academic year. The results revealed that there were notable differences between the two groups’ views on the inclusiveness and effectiveness of distance education. The first group reported the challenges stemmed from disadvantaged economic conditions. The second group reported the problems such as lack of motivation, stress, mental fatigue, and trouble focusing. Distance education is seen non-inclusive and ineffective by the first group. The second group evaluates distance education as inclusive and sufficient. The participants also made suggestions to increase inclusiveness of distance education.


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How to Cite

Sezer, Şenol, & Can, E. (2022). What are the Regional Challenges for Inclusive Distance Education During COVID-19 Pandemic in Turkey? A Qualitative Analysis . Psycho-Educational Research Reviews, 11(3), 567–585. https://doi.org/10.52963/PERR_Biruni_V11.N3.13