Types of Feedback in Inquiry Science Learning Classroom in Secondary Education





Feedback, Feedback function, Feedback method, Inquiry based science learning


Although an inquiry-based approach has been adopted in science lessons in recent years, the characteristics of this approach have been ignored in determining teacher feedback. In this study, it is aimed to determine teacher feedback by considering the cognitive and affective components inherent in inquiry. This study, based on qualitative research, was conducted with an instrumental case study design. The types of verbal feedback given by the teacher were followed during the inquiry-based science lessons. With the content analysis of the collected data, the feedback was classified according to their method and function. In this study, the place of the feedback types determined in the environment where inquiry-based learning is taken into account, in the literature is discussed by comparing them with the existing feedback types.


Abd-El-Khalick, F., Boujaoude, S., Duschl, R., Lederman, N. G., Mamlok‐Naaman, R., Hofstein, A., Nıaz, M., Treagust, D & Tuan, H. L. (2004). Inquiry in science education: International perspectives. Science Education. 88(3), 397-419. https://doi.org/10.1002/sce.10118

Ames, C., & Archer, J. (1988). Achievement goals in the classroom: Students’ learning strategies and motivation processes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(3), 260-267. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.80.3.260

Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.84.2.191

Bandura, A. (1986). The explanatory and predictive scope of self-efficacy theory. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 4(3), 359-373. https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.1986.4.3.359

Bloom, B. S. (1984). The Search for Methods of Group Instruction As Effective As one-to-one tutoring. Educational Leadership, 41(8), 4-17. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X013006004

Burns, J. C., Okey, J. R., & Wise, K. C. (1985). Development of an integrated process skill test: TIPS II. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 22(2), 169-177.


Carless, D., & Winstone, N. (2020). Teacher feedback literacy and its interplay with student feedback literacy. Teaching in Higher Education, 1-14. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13562517.2020.1782372

Cengiz, E., & Ayvacı, H. Ş. (2017). Analysing the feedback that secondary school science teachers provide for student errors that show up in their lessons. Journal of Turkish Science Education, 14(3), 109-124.

Chalmers, C., MacCallum, J., Mowat, E., & Fulton, N. (2014). Audio feedback: Richer language but no measurable impact on student performance. Practitioner Research in Higher Education, 8(1), 64-73. https://ojs.cumbria.ac.uk/index.php/prhe/article/view/150

Chin, C. (2006). Classroom interaction in science: Teacher questioning and feedback to students’ responses. International Journal of Science Education, 28(11), 1315-1346. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09500690600621100

Chi, S., Wang, Z., & Liu, X. (2021). Moderating effects of teacher feedback on the associations among inquiry-based science practices and students’ science-related attitudes and beliefs. International Journal of Science Education, 43(14), 2426-2456. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09500693.2021.1968532

Çakar, E. (2008). Determination the level of students’ achievement of the science process skills acquisition of 5th grade science and technology programs [Unpublished Master Thesis]. Süleyman Demirel University, Isparta. https://tez.yok.gov.tr/UlusalTezMerkezi/tezSorguSonucYeni.jsp

Demir, T. (2011). Study of the relationship between the creative writing skills of primary school students and their self-efficacy perception and types of achievement goal orientation. [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Gazi University, Ankara. https://tez.yok.gov.tr/UlusalTezMerkezi/tezSorguSonucYeni.jsp

Dweck, C. S., & Leggett, E. L. (1988). A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological Review, 95(2), 256–273. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.95.2.256

Eckes, A., & Wilde, M. (2019). Structuring experiments in biology lessons through teacher feedback. International Journal of Science Education, 41(16), 2233-2253. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09500693.2019.1668578

Furtak, E. M., Seidel, T., Iverson, H. & Briggs, D.C. (2012). Experimental and quasi-experimental studies of inquiry-based science teaching: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 82(3), 300-329. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654312457206

Geban, Ö., Askar, P., & Özkan, Ï. (1992). Effects of computer simulations and problem-solving approaches on high school students. The Journal of Educational Research, 86(1), 5-10. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00220671.1992.9941821

Hattie, J., & Timperley, H. (2007). The power of feedback. Review of Educational Research, 77(1), 81-112. https://doi.org/10.3102/003465430298487

Hattie, J. (2009). The black box of tertiary assessment: An impending revolution. Tertiary assessment & higher education student outcomes: Policy, Practice & Research, 259, 275. https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/document?repid=rep1&type=pdf&doi=ef18bd57b49bf1cb99b4b7fd150c893e607c6b6b

Jagacinski, C. M., & Strickland, O. J. (2000). Task and ego orientation: The role of goal orientations in anticipated affective reactions to achievement outcomes. Learning and Individual Differences, 12(2), 189-208. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1041-6080(01)00037-1

Jonassen, DH (1991). Evaluation of constructivist learning. Educational Technology, 31 (9), 28-33.

MacIsaac, D., & Falconer, K. (2002). Reforming physics instruction via RTOP. The Physics Teacher, 40(8), 479-485.https://doi.org/10.1119/1.1526620

National Research Council. (2012). A framework for K-12 science education: Practices, crosscutting concepts, and core ideas. National Academies Press. https://nap.nationalacademies.org/catalog/13165/a-framework-for-k-12-science-education-practices-crosscutting-concepts

Osborne, J., Collins, S., Ratcliffe, M., Millar, R., & Duschl, R. (2003). What “ideas-about-science” should be taught in school science. A Delphi study of the expert community. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 40(7), 692–720. https://doi.org/10.1002/tea.10105

Özkale, U., & Kanadli, S. (2021). An investigation of feedback strategies used by science teachers in the classroom setting: A mixed-methods research. International Journal of Progressive Education, 17(1), 439-457.

Pekrun, R., Cusack, A., Murayama, K., Elliot, A. J., & Thomas, K. (2014). The power of anticipated feedback: Effects on students' achievement goals and achievement emotions. Learning and Instruction, 29, 115-124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2013.09.002

Quigley, C., Marshall, J. C., Deaton, C., Cook, M. P., & Padilla, M. (2011). Challenges to inquiry teaching and suggestions for how to meet them. Science Educator, 20(1), 55-61. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ940939.pdf

Rinehart, R. W., Kuhn, M., & Milford, T. M. (2020). The relationship between epistemic cognition and dialogic feedback in elementary and middle school science classrooms. Research in Science & Technological Education, 1-18. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02635143.2020.1799779

Sadler, D. R. 1989. Formative assessment and the design of instructional systems. Instructional Science, 18, 145–165. [Crossref], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]

Schwartz, R., Lederman, N. G., & Lederman, J. S. (2008). An instrument to assess views of scientific inquiry: The VOSI questionnaire. [Conference presentation]. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching. Baltimore, MD. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/251538349_An_Instrument_To_Assess_Views_Of_Scientific_Inquiry_The_VOSI_Questionnaire

Schunk, D. H. (2014). Learning theories from an educational perspective. [Öğrenme teorileri-Eğitimsel bir bakışla]. (Translation from 5nd ed.). (M. Şahin (Trans. Ed.). Nobel.

Shute, V. J. (2008). Focus on formative feedback. Review of Educational Research, 78(1), 153-189. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654307313795

Strippel, C. G., & Sommer, K. (2015). Teaching nature of scientific inquiry in chemistry: How do German chemistry teachers use labwork to teach NOSI?. International Journal of Science Education, 37(18), 2965-2986. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09500693.2015.1119330

Tunstall, P., & Gsipps, C. (1996). Teacher feedback to young children in formative assessment: A typology. British Educational Research Journal, 22(4), 389-404. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/0141192960220402?journalCode=cber20

Thurlings, M., Vermeulen, M., Bastiaens, T., & Stijnen, S. (2013). Understanding feedback: A learning theory perspective. Educational Research Review, 9, 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2012.11.004

Van den Bergh, L., Ros, A., & Beijaard, D. (2013). Teacher feedback during active learning: Current practices in primary schools. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 83(2), 341-362 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8279.2012.02073.x

Voerman, L., Meijer, P. C., Korthagen, F. A., & Simons, R. J. (2012). Types and frequencies of feedback interventions in classroom interaction in secondary education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28(8), 1107-1115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2012.06.006

Wisniewski, B., Zierer, K., & Hattie, J. (2020). The power of feedback revisited: A meta-analysis of educational feedback research. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 3087. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.03087/full

Additional Files



How to Cite

Güney, S., & Feyzioğlu, B. (2023). Types of Feedback in Inquiry Science Learning Classroom in Secondary Education. Psycho-Educational Research Reviews, 12(2), 390–408. https://doi.org/10.52963/PERR_Biruni_V12.N2.03