Components and Process of Identity Formation in Model of the Authorship of Own Lives in People with Disabilities



authorship of own lives in people with disabilities, personal identity, social identity, normalization, social belonging, integration


The subject of this article consistently develops the authorship of own lives in people with disabilities concept. With reference to the strategic framework (contextualism and systemness in particular), it constructs an AOL-PwD model. The model presents identity as a constitutive area in understanding the authorship of their own lives in people with disabilities. The AOL-PwD model is composed of three interrelated elements: (1) authorship aspects, (2) identity components, and (3) process links. The article proposes important theses that chart direction for research. It suggests that identity is a fundamental category in exploring the AOL-PwD. The authorship of their own lives in people with disabilities is a dynamic category. As a result of AOL-PwD formation, the individual achieves a given authorship status: achieved, foreclosed, diffused, or moratorium status. The identity status achieved determines the way people with disabilities perceive their authorship life aspects. Developmental dynamics and specific identity and life authorship statuses being acquired suggest that it is necessary to redefine these areas of people's functioning on a regular basis. We believe that a consistent implementation of the concept will provide an inspiring theoretical and empirical space for multidimensional explorations of the phenomenon of disability in light of normalization, humanities, and affirmation. The article also charts direction for further research, which will include, among others, qualitative research to verify the AOL-PwD model, then measurement tools will be developed, and a comprehensive assessment of people with different disabilities identifying AOL-PwD determinants will be conducted.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Joanna Głodkowska

Full Professor at The Maria Grzegorzewska University (APS)
Director of Institute of Special Education Head of Chair of Interdisciplinary Disability Studies
40 Szczęśliwicka Street 02-353 Warszawa

Marta Pągowska

Assistant Professor at The Maria Grzegorzewska University (APS) Head of Institute of Special Education Chair of Interdisciplinary Disability Studies 40 Szczęśliwicka Street 02-353 Warszawa


Albarello, Flavia, Crocetti, Elisabetta, and Rubini, Monica. "I and us: A longitudinal study on the interplay of personal and social identity in adolescence." Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 47(4)(2018):689-702.

Beckett, Angharad E. and Campbell, Tom. "The social model of disability as an oppositional device." Disability & Society. 30(2)(2015):270-283.

Bronston, William G. "Concepts and theory of normalization." The mentally retarded child and his family: A multidisciplinary handbook. Ed. R. Koch and J. C. Dobson. New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1976, 490– 516.

Brzezińska, Anna. „Dzieciństwo i dorastanie: korzenie tożsamości osobistej i społecznej.” Edukacja regionalna. Ed. Anna. W. Brzezińska, Aleksandra Hulewska, and Justyna Słomska. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, 2006, 47-77.

Campbell, Jane, and Oliver, Mike. Disability politics: Understanding our past, changing our future. Abingdon- on-Thames: Routledge, 2013.

Côté, James. E., and Levine, Charles G. Identity formation, youth, and development: A simplified approach. Psychology Press, 2015.

Côté, James E. . “Identity studies: How close are we to developing a social science of identity? - An appraisal of the field.” Identity, 6(1) (2006):3-25.

Crocetti, Elisabetta, Rubini, Monica, Luyckx, Koen, and Meeus, Wim . "Identity formation in early and middle adolescents from various ethnic groups: From three dimensions to five statuses." Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37 (2008):983–996.

Darling, Rosalyn Benjamin. "Toward a model of changing disability identities: A proposed typology and research agenda." Disability & Society, 18(7)(2003):881-895.

das Dores Guerreiro, Maria, and Abrantes, Pedro. "Moving into adulthood in a southern European country: Transitions in Portugal." Portuguese Journal of Social Science, 3(3)(2004):191-209.

Degener, Theresia. “A human rights model of disability.” Routledge Handbook of Disability Law and Human Rights. Routledge, 2016, 47-66.

Erikson, Erik. H. Childhood and society. New York: Norton, 1950.

Erikson, Erik. H. "Human strength and the cycle of generations." Insight and responsibility: Lectures on the ethical implications of psychoanalytic insight. Ed.

Erik. H. Erikson, 1964, 111-157.

Erikson, Erik. H. Identity: Youth and crisis. New York, 1968.

Erikson, Erik. H. Identity and the life cycle. New York: Norton, 1980.

Erikson, Erik. H. Dopełniony cykl życia [Original title: The life cycle completed]. Poznań: Dom Wydawniczy REBIS, 2002.

Erikson, Erik. H. Dzieciństwo i społeczeństwo [Original title: Childhood and society]. Poznań: Dom Wydawniczy Rebis, 1997.

Fadjukoff, Päivi. Identity formation in adulthood. Jyväskylä: Jyväskylä University Printing House, 2007.

Fadjukoff, Päivi, Kokko, Katja, and Pulkkinen, Lea. “Implications of timing of entering adulthood for identity achievement.” Journal of Adolescent Research, 22 (2007):504-530. doi: 10.1177/0743558407305420

Fadjukoff, Päivi, Pulkkinen, Lea, and Kokko, Katja. “Identity formation in adulthood: A longitudinal study from age 27 to 50.” Identity, 16(1) (2016):8-23.

Forber-Pratt, Anjali J. et al. “Disability identity development: A systematic review of the literature.” Rehabilitation Psychology, 62(2)(2017):198-207.

French, S., & Swain, J. (2004). Whose tragedy? Towards a personal non-tragedy view of disability. London, UK: Sage.

Foucault, Michel. Choroba umysłowa a psychologia. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo KR, 2000.

Galvin, Rose. "The function of language in the creation and liberation of disabled identities: From Saussure to contemporary strategies of government." Australian Communications Journal, 30(3)(2003):83–100.

Galvin, Rose. D. "Researching the disabled identity: Contextualising the identity transformations which accompany the onset of impairment." Sociology of Health & Illness, 27(3)(2005):393-413.

Giddens, Anthony. Modernity and Self-Identity. Cambridge: Polit, 1991.

Gill, Carol. J. "Four types of integration in disability identity development." Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 9(1) (1997): 39–46.

Gilson, S. F., and DePoy, E. “Disability, identity, and cultural diversity.” Review of Disability Studies: An International Journal, 1(1) (2015).

Głodkowska, Joanna. „Przestrzeń rehabilitacyjna w otoczeniu osób z niepełnosprawnością intelektualną – ujęcie koncepcyjne.” Ruch Pedagogiczny, 5-6(2003): 7- 23.

Głodkowska, Joanna. „Optymizm czy pesymizm w stylu wyjaśniania stosowanym przez młodzież z lekką niepełnosprawnością intelektualną.” Człowiek – Niepełnosprawność – Społeczeństwo, 1(2005):153- 179.

Głodkowska, Joanna. Konstruowanie umysłowej reprezentacji świata. Diagnoza, możliwości rozwojowe i edukacyjne dzieci z lekką niepełnosprawnością intelektualną w aspekcie stałości i zmienności w pedagogice specjalnej. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Akapit, 2012.

Głodkowska, Joanna. „Przełamywanie stereotypu niepełnosprawności intelektualnej.” Ruch Pedagogiczny, 3(2013): 31-69.

Głodkowska, Joanna. „Autorstwo życia a niepełnosprawność – ponawiane odczytywanie idei normalizacji” [Authorship of life versus disability – Renewed interpretations of the normalization principle]. Człowiek – Niepełnosprawność – Społeczeństwo, 1(2014a): 75–97.

Głodkowska, Joanna. „Rozważania o podmiotowości a niepełnosprawność - u źródeł współczesnego ujęcia i w perspektywie interdyscyplinarnej” [Discussion of subjectivity versus disability – At the origins of the contemporary approach and interdisciplinary perspective]. Człowiek – Niepełnosprawność – Społeczeństwo, 2(2014b): 91-110.

Głodkowska, Joanna. „Podmiotowość a doświadczenie zależności przez osoby z niepełnosprawnością – normalizacja jako narzędzie ideowe rehabilitacji podmiotowej” [Subjectivity versus dependence experienced by people with disabilities – Normalization as an ideological tool of subjective rehabilitation]. Człowiek – Niepełnosprawność – Społeczeństwo, 3(2014c): 87-106.

Głodkowska, Joanna. „Być podmiotem i stawać się autorem własnego życia- paradygmat wsparcia w przygotowaniu osób z niepełnosprawnością do egzystencji podmiotowej” [To be a subject and become the author of one's life - Paradigm of support in preparing people with disabilities for subjective existence]. Człowiek – Niepełnosprawność – Społeczeństwo, 4(2014d): 29-44.

Głodkowska, Joanna. „Autorstwo własnego życia osoby z niepełnosprawnością – konceptualizacja w perspektywie dobrostanu, podmiotowości, optymalnego funkcjonowania i wsparcia” [Authorship of their own lives in people with disabilities - Conceptualization in view of well-being, subjectivity, optimal functioning, and support]. Personalistyczne ujęcie fenomenu niepełnosprawności [Personalistic approach to the phenomenon of disability]. Ed. Joanna Głodkowska. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Akademii Pedagogiki Specjalnej, 2015, 110-134.

Głodkowska, Joanna. „Dziecko Osobą  personalistyczne odczytywanie kanonów wczesnego wspomagania rozwoju dziecka.” Interdyscyplinarne konteksty wczesnej interwencji, wczesnego wspomagania rozwoju dziecka [Interdisciplinary contexts of early intervention and early childhood development support]. Ed. Joanna Głodkowska, Grażyna Walczak, Radosław Piotrowicz, and Iwona Konieczna. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo APS, 2017.

Głodkowska, Joanna, and Gosk, Urszula. Autores de sus propias vidas en personas con discapacidad (AOL-PwD). “De las fuentes y el constructo teórico al diseño de etapas y procedimientos de investigación” [The authorship of their own lives in people with disabilities (AOL-PwD) - From the sources and theoretical construct to the design of research stages and procedures]. Siglo Cero, 49(4)( 2018):111-126.

Głodkowska, Joanna, Gosk, Urszula and Pągowska, Marta. “The Authorship of Their Own Lives in People With Disabilities: Research Strategy Framework”. International Journal of psycho-educational sciences, 7(3)(2018):7-18.

Goffman, Erving. Piętno. Rozważania o zranionej tożsamości [Original title: Stigma. Notes on the management of spoiled identity]. (translated by Aleksandra Dzierżyńska and Joanna Tokarska-Bakir). Gdańsk: Gdańskie Wydawnictwo Psychologiczne, 2005.

Gustavsson, Anders, and Zakrzewska-Manterys, Elżbieta (Eds.). Upośledzenie w społecznym zwierciadle. Wydawnictwo "Żak", 1997.

Hahn, Harlan D., and Belt, Todd L. "Disability identity and attitudes toward cure in a sample of disabled activists."Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 45(4)(2004):453-464.

Hughes, Bill, Russell, Rachel, and Paterson, Kevin. "Nothing to be had 'off the peg': Consumption, identity, and the immobilization of young disabled people." In Disability and Society, 20(1)(2005):3-17.

Kidd, Warren, and Teagle, Alison. Culture and identity (Skills-based sociology). New York: Palgrave and Macmillan, 2001.

Klimstra, Theo A., et al. "Identity formation in adolescence: Change or stability?". Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39(2)(2010):150-162.

Kroger, Jane. “Identity development through adulthood: The move toward “Wholeness.” The Oxford Handbook of Identity Development, Eds: K. C. McLean and M. Syed, 2015, 65-80.

Luyckx, Koen, Goossens, Luc, and Soenens, Bart. "A developmental contextual perspective on identity construction in emerging adulthood: Change dynamics in commitment formation and commitment evaluation." Developmental Psychology, 42(2)(2006):366-380.

Luyckx, Koen, Goossens, Luc, Soenens, Bart, and Beyers, Wim. "Unpacking commitment and exploration: Preliminary validation of an integrative model of late adolescent identity formation." Journal of Adolescence, 29(3)(2006):361-378.

Luyckx, Koen, Teppers, Eveline, Klimstra, Theo A., and Rassart, Jessica. " Identity processes and personality traits and types in adolescence: Directionality of effects and developmental trajectories." Developmental Psychology, 50(8) (2014):2144-2153.

Luyckx, Koen, et. al. "Parental psychological control and dimensions of identity formation in emerging adulthood." Journal of Family Psychology, 21(2007):546–550.

Marcia, James E. "Development and validation of ego- identity status." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3(5)(1966):551-558.

Marcia, James. “Ego identity development.” Handbook of adolescent psychology. J. Adelson (Ed.). New York: John Wiley, 1980, 159-187.

Marcia, James E. (2002). “Identity and psychosocial development in adulthood.” Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, 2(1):7-28.

Meeus, Wim, "Patterns of adolescent identity development: Review of literature and longitudinal analysis." Developmental Review, 19(1999):419–461.

Meeus, Wim, Iedema, J. and Maassen, G.H. “Commitment and exploration as mechanisms of identity formation.” Psychological reports, 90(3)(2002):771-785.

Meeus, Wim, "On the progression and stability of adolescent identity formation: A five-wave longitudinal study in early-to-middle and middle-to- late adolescence." Child Development, 81(2010):1565-1581.

Murugami, Margaret W. "Disability and identity." Disability Studies Quarterly, 29(4)(2009).

Murray, Pippa. Disabled teenagers' experiences of access to inclusive leisure. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 2002.

Oliver, Mike. "The social model of disability: Thirty years on." Disability & Society, 28(7)(2013):1024-1026.

Ostrowska, Antonina, Sikorska, Joanna, and Gąciarz, Barbara. Osoby niepełnosprawne w Polsce w latach dziewięćdziesiątych. Instytut Spraw Publicznych, 2001.

Putnam, Michelle. "Conceptualizing disability: Developing a framework for political disability identity." Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 16(3)(2005), 188-198.

Riddell, Sheila, and Watson, Nick. Disability, culture and identity. London/New York: Routledge, 2014.

Schwartz, Seth J., Côté, James E., and Arnett, Jeffrey J. "Identity and agency in emerging adulthood: Two developmental routes in the individualization process." Youth & Society, 37(2)(2005):201-229.

Shakespeare, Tom. “Disability, identity, and difference.” Exploring the divide: Illness and disability. Colin Barnes and Geof Mercer (Eds.). Leeds: Disability Press, 1996, 94-113.

Shogren, Karrie A. "Considering context: An integrative concept for promoting outcomes in the intellectual disability field." Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 51(2)(2013):132–137.

Sikorska, Joanna. „Niepełnosprawność a rynek. Wymiary marginalizacji osób niepełnosprawnych.” Społeczne problemy osób niepełnosprawnych. Joanna Sikorska (Ed.). Warszawa: Wydawnictwo IFiS PAN, 2002.

Speck, Otto. Niepełnosprawni w społeczeństwie: podstawy ortopedagogiki. Gdańsk: Gdańskie Wydawnictwo Psychologiczne, 2005.

Stephen, Joanne, Fraser, Eugene, and Marcia, James E. “Lifespan identity development: Variables related to Moratorium-Achievement (MAMA) cycles.” Journal of Adolescence, 15(1992):283–300.

Swain, John, and French, Sally. “Towards an affirmation model of disability.” Disability and Society, 15(4)(2000):569-582.

Swain, John, French, Sally, Barnes, Colin, and Thomas, Carol (Eds.). Disabling barriers-Enabling environments. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2013.

Turner, John C., and Onorato, Rina S. “Social identity, personality, and the self-concept: A self-categorizing perspective.” Applied social research. The psychology of the social self. T. R. Tyler, R. M. Kramer, and O. P. John (Eds.). Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers, 1999, 11- 46.

Watson, Nick. “Well, I know this is going to sound very strange to you, but I don't see myself as a disabled person: Identity and disability.” Disability & Society, 17(5)(2002):509-527.

Whitney, Chelsea. "Intersections in identity–Identity development among queer women with disabilities." Sexuality & Disability, 24(1)(2006):39-52.

Wiszejko-Wierzbicka, Dorota (2008). Od samoakceptacji do aktywności? Postawy wobec własnej niepełnosprawności a aktywność zawodowa. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Szkoły Wyższej Psychologii Społecznej “Academica”, 2008.

Valeras, Aimee. “We don’t have a box”: Understanding hidden disability identity utilizing narrative research methodology." Disability Studies Quarterly, 30(3/4)(2010).

Vignoles, Vivian L., Schwartz, Seth J., and Luyckx, Koen. "Introduction: Toward an integrative view of identity." Handbook of identity theory and research. Seth J. Schwartz, Koen Luyckx, and Vivian L. Vignoles (Eds.). New York, NY: Springer, 2011, 1- 27.

Vignoles, Vivian. “Identity: personal AND social. Oxford handbook of personality and social psychology.” Oxford handbook of personality and social psychology. Deaux, Kay and Snyder, Mark (Eds.) Oxford, 2017.

Additional Files



How to Cite

Głodkowska, J. ., & Pągowska, M. . (2019). Components and Process of Identity Formation in Model of the Authorship of Own Lives in People with Disabilities. Psycho-Educational Research Reviews, 8(2), 7 –. Retrieved from