Investigation the Relationship between Online Homework, Academic Success and Self-Regulation

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.52963/PERR_Biruni_V11.N2.02

Keywords:

Online homework, Self-regulation, Reflection, Effort, Academic success

Abstract

This research aimed to investigate the relationship between pre-service teachers’ online assignments, academic success, and self-regulation skills. In this study, the correlational research design was used. The research was conducted with 124 pre-service teachers studying in different departments of Elementary Mathematics, Turkish, and Social Studies Teaching at Gaziantep University in the 2020-2021 academic year.  Three extreme values were determined and the answers of a total of 121 pre-service teachers were used as data. The scale for assignment effort, the scale for reflective thinking ability and the assignment evaluation rubric were used as data collection tools. As the result of the research, it is seen that pre-service teachers’ online assignment scores and average academic levels are high. When the assignment qualities of the pre-service teachers, their reflective abilities on teaching, assignment effort and academic success were examined in terms of department variable, the departments with the highest average academic success and reflexivity sub-dimension score were elementary school mathematics teaching, Turkish language teaching and social studies teaching respectively. It was also found that the assignment qualities of the pre-service teachers predict the academic success and assignment effort in a positive direction.

References

Ainley, M., & Patrick, L. (2006). Measuring self-regulated learning processes through tracking patterns of student interaction with achievement activities. Educational Psychology Review, 18(3), 267-286. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-006-9018-z

Akbaba, A., & Tüzemen, M. (2015). İlkokul 1., 2. ve 3. sınıflarda ödev vermenin pedagojik boyutunun ilgili öğretmen görüşlerine göre değerlendirilmesi. International Journal of Social Science, 32, 119-138. http://dx.doi.org/10.9761/JASSS2716

Aldosary, A. (1995). The correlation between final grade score, attendance, and homework in the performance of CED students, European Journal of Engineering Education, 20(4), 481-486. http://doi.org/10.1080/0304379950200409

Arıkan, F. (2020). Ortaokul öğrencilerinin teknolojiyle kendi kendine öğrenme, ödev stresi ve akademik başarıları arasındaki ilişki. Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi. (Unpublished master’s thesis). Isparta, Türkiye.

Arsal, Z. (2009). The impact of self-regulation instruction on mathematics achievements and attitudes of elementary school students. Eğitim ve Bilim, 34(152), 3-14.

Baker, D., & LeTendre, G. K. (2005). National differences, global similarities: World culture and the future of schooling. Stanford, Calif: Stanford Social Sciences.

Bandura, A., & Walters, R.H. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice-Hall.

Bandura, A. (1989). Human agency in social cognitive theory. American psychologist, 44(9),1175-1184. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.44.9.1175

Bandura, A. (1991). Social cognitive theory of self-regulation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 248-287. https://doi.org/10.1016/0749-5978(91)90022-L

Barnard, L., Lan, W. Y., To, Y. M., Paton, V. O., & Lai, S.-L. (2009). Measuring self-regulation in online and blended learning environments. Internet and Higher Education, 12(1),1-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2008.10.005

Baumeister, R. F., & Vohs, K. D. (2007). Self‐Regulation, ego depletion, and motivation. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 1(1), 115-128. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-9004.2007.00001.x

Bembenutty, H. & White, M.C. (2013). Academic performance and satisfaction with homework completion among college students. Learning and Individual Differences, 24, 83-88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2012.10.013

Bolat, Ö. (2016). Ödevler gerçekten gerekli mi? Retrieved from https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/yazarlar/ozgur-bolat/odevler-gercekten-gerekli-mi-40037005

Bora, A. (2018). Çevrimiçi ödev uygulamalarının ilkokul 4.sınıf öğrencilerinin akademik başarılarına ve ödeve ilişkin tutumlarına etkisi. (Unpublished master’s thesis). Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi, İzmir, Türkiye.

Browne, M. W. & Cudeck, R. (1992). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. Sociological methods & research, 21(2), 230–258. https://doi.org/10.1177/0049124192021002005

Büyüktokatlı N. (2009). İlköğretimde ev ödevi uygulamalarına ilişkin öğretmen görüşlerinin incelenmesi. (Unpublished master’s thesis). Selçuk Üniversitesi, Konya, Türkiye.

Cevizci, Ahmet (2011). Eğitim felsefesi. İstanbul: Say Yayınları.

Ceylan, B. (2020). İlkokul dördüncü sınıf fen bilimleri dersinde ödev öz düzenlemesi eğitiminin öğrencilerin akademik öz yeterlik, problem çözme becerileri ve ders başarıları üzerindeki etkileri. (Unpublished master’s thesis). Marmara Üniversitesi, İstanbul, Türkiye.

Chen, P. P. (2002). Exploring the accuracy and predictability of the self-efficacy beliefs of seventh-grade mathematics students. Learning and Individual Differences, 14(1), 77–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2003.08.003

Cooper, H., Robinson, J. C., & Patall, E.A. (2006). Does homework improve academic achievement? A syntehesis of research, 1987-2003. Review of educational research, 76(1), 1-62. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543076001001

Cooper, H. (2008). Homework: What the research says. research brief. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

Corno, L. (2000). Looking at homework differently. The Elementary School Journal, 100(5), 529-548. https://doi.org/10.1086/499654

Çiltaş, A. (2011). Eğitimde öz-düzenleme öğretiminin önemi üzerine bir çalışma. Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 5(3), 1-11.

Çokçalışkan, H. (2019). Özdüzenlemeli fen öğretiminin ilkokul dördüncü sınıf öğrencilerinin özdüzenleme becerilerine, bilimsel süreç becerilerine ve başarılarına etkisi. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Marmara Üniversitesi, İstanbul, Türkiye.

Dean, D. M. (2004). An evaluation of the use of web-enhanced homework assignments in high school biology classes. Published doctorate dissertation, The University of Alabama, Alabama, The USA.

Demirel, Ö. (2012). Eğitim bilimleri sözlüğü. Ankara:Pegem Akademi Yayıncılık.

Deniz, B. (2019). Ortaokul öğrencilerinin ev ödevi yönetim becerileri bilişüstü farkındalıkları ve akademik başarıları arasındaki ilişkiler. (Unpublished master’s thesis). Balıkesir Üniversitesi, Balıkesir, Türkiye.

Dewey, J. (1963). Experience and education. New York: Collier.

Dignath, C. & Buttner, G. (2008). Components of fostering self- regulated learning among students. A meta-analysis on intervention studies at primary and secondary school level. Metacognition and learning 3(3), 231–264. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11409-008-9029-x

Dillard-Eggers, J., Wooten, T., Childs, B., & Coker, J. (2011). Evidence on the effectiveness of on-line homework. College Teaching Methods & Styles Journal (CTMS), 4(5), 9-16. https://doi.org/10.19030/ctms.v4i5.5548

Dökmecioğlu, B. (2017). Öğrencilerin fen bilimleri dersindeki eleştirel düşünme eğilimlerinin yapılandırmacı sınıf ortamı algıları ve üstbilişsel özdüzenleme stratejileri ile yordanması. (Unpublished master’s thesis). Atatürk Üniversitesi, Erzurum, Türkiye.

Eccles, J. S. & Wigfield, A. (2002). Motivational beliefs, values, and goals. Annual Review of Psychology, 53(1), 109-132. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135153

Eğmir, E. (2019). Öğretmen eğitiminde yansıtıcı düşünme uygulamalarına ilişkin Türkiye’de yapılmış çalışmaların analizi. Abant İzzet Baysal Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 19(1), 194-212. https://doi.org/10.17240/aibuefd.2019.19.43815-422573

Genç, N. (2019). İlkokulda verilen ev ödevlerinin öğretmen, öğrenci ve veli görüşlerine göre incelenmesi. Atatürk Üniversitesi, Erzurum, Türkiye.

Ghosh, U. (2011). The motivations and experiences of students enrolled in online science courses at the community college. Colorado State University, Colorado, The USA.

Hoover-Dempsey, K. V., Battiato, A. C., Walker, J. M. T., Reed, R. P., DeJong, J. M. & Jones, K. P. (2001). Parental involvement in homework. Educational Psychologist, 36(3), 195–209. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15326985EP3603_5

Hu, L. T. & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cut off criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural equation modeling: a multidisciplinary journal, 6(1), http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118

İyiöz. D. (2019). Öğrencilerin ödev yönetim stratejileri ile ödev amaç, ödev ilgi ve ödeve ilişkin tutumları arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi. Çukurova Üniversitesi, Adana, Türkiye.

Kader, F. A. H. A., & Eissa, M. A. (2015). The effectiveness of time management strategies instruction on students’ academic time management and academic self-efficacy. Psycho-Educational Research Reviews, 4(1), 43. Retrieved from https://perrjournal.com/index.php/perrjournal/article/view/339

Kapıkıran, Ş. & Kıran, H. (1999). Ev Ödevinin Öğrencinin Akademik Başarısına Etkisi. Pamukkale Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi. 5(5). 12-26.

Kara, K. & Bay, E. (2016). Fen bilimleri dersinde etkili öğretim stratejilerinin etkililiğinin değerlendirilmesi. Atatürk Üniversitesi Kazım Karabekir Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, (34), 55-69.

Kaya, D. (2020). Altıncı sınıf öğrencilerinin matematiksel ilişkilendirme öz yeterlik düzeylerinin algılanan öğretmen duygusal destek, cinsiyet ve matematik başarısı açısından incelenmesi. Necatibey Eğitim Fakültesi, Fen ve Matematik Eğitimi Dergisi, 14(1), 106-132. https://doi.org/10.17522/balikesirnef.605489

Kenny, D. A., Kaniskan, B. & McCoach, D. B. (2014). The Performance of RMSEA in models with small degrees of freedom. Sociological Methods & Research, 44(3), 486-507 https://doi.org/10.1177/0049124114543236

Kline, R. B. (2016). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. (4th ed.). New York, NY: Guilford.

Kohn, A. (2007). Changing homework default. Independent School, 66(2), 58-65.

Kotaman, H. (2013). Early childhood teachers’ self-efficacy for supporting development scale. Psycho-Educational Research Reviews, 2(1), 114. Retrieved from https://www.journals.lapub.co.uk/index.php/perr/article/view/102

Liu, X. & Koirala, H. (2009). The effect of mathematics self-efficacy on mathematics achievement of high school students. NERA Conference Proceedings 2009, 30. http://digitalcommons.uconn.edu/nera_2009/30

Loizidou, A. & Koutselini, M. (2007). Metacognitive monitoring: an obstacle and a key to effective teaching and learning. Teachers and Teaching: theory and practice, 13(5), 499-519. https://doi.org/10.1080/13540600701561711

MacCallum, R. C., Browne, M. W. & Sugawara, H. M. (1996). Power analysis and determination of sample size for covariance structure modeling. Psychological Methods, 1(2), 130–149. https://doi.org/10.1037/1082-989x.1.2.130

McLeod, D. B. (1992). Research on affect in mathematics education: A reconceptualization. Handbook of research on mathematics teaching and learning, 1, 575-596.

McReynolds, K. (2005). Homework. Encounter: Education for Meaning and Social Justice, 18(2), 9-13.

Meyer, C. J. (2005). Self-regulation homework intervention: Increasing academic achievement in social studies. The University of Wisconsin, Madison, The USA.

Mezirow, J. (1977). Perspective transformation, Studies in Adult Education.

Mezirow, J. (1981). A critical theory of adult learning and education. Adult education, 32(1), 3-24. https://doi.org/10.1177/074171368103200101

Mezirow, J. (1985). A critical theory of self-directed learning. New directions for continuing education, 25, 17-30. https://doi.org/10.1002/ACE.36719852504

Mezirow, J. (1991). Transformative dimensions of adult learning. Jossey-Bass, 350 Sansome Street, San Francisco, CA 94104-1310.

Mezirow, J. (1992). Transformation theory: Critique and confusion. Adult education quarterly, 42(4), 250-252. https://doi.org/10.1177/074171369204200404

Minotti, J. L. (2005). Effects of learning-style-based homework prescriptions on the achievement and attitudes of middle school students. NaSSP bulletin, 89(642), 67-89. https://doi.org/10.1177/019263650508964206

Olpak, Y. Z. (2013). Çevrimiçi öğrenme ortamlarında farklı geri bildirim stratejilerinin, öğrencilerin sosyal, bilişsel ve öğretimsel bulunuşluk algıları i̇le akademik başarılarına etkisi. (Unpublished master’s thesis). Gazi Üniversitesi, Ankara, Türkiye.

Özben, B. (2006). İlköğretim ikinci kademe öğrencilerinin fen bilgisi dersindeki başarılarına ev ödevi çalışmalarının etkisi. Gazi Üniversitesi, Ankara, Türkiye.

Özer, B. & Öcal, S. (2012). İlköğretim 4. Ve 5. sınıf öğrencilerinin ev ödevlerine yönelik tutumlarının değerlendirilmesi. Dicle Üniversitesi Ziya Gökalp Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi,18.

Özmenteş, S. (2008). Çalgı Eğitiminde Özdüzenlemeli Öğrenme Taktikleri. İnönü Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 9(16), 157–175.

Pajares, F. (1995). Self-efficacy beliefs in academic settings. Review of Educational Research, 66(4), 543-578. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543066004543

Piñeiro, I. & Rosário, P. (2016). Academic goals, student homework engagement, and academic achievement in elementary school. Frontiers in Psychology 7 (413). https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00463

Pintrich, P., Smith, D., Garcia, T. & McKeachie, W. (1991). A manual for the use of the motivational strategies for learning questionnaire (MSLQ). MI: University of Michigan, National Center for Research to Improve Postsecondary Teaching and Learning

Pool, M. R. (2005). The impact of a homework intervention program on middle school student success: Changing teacher perceptions, reducing student failure, and improving student achievement on state mandated tests. Texas A&M University, Texas, The USA.

Ramdass, D. & Zimmerman, B. J. (2011). Developing self-regulation skills: The important role of homework. Journal of advanced academics, 22(2), 194–218. https://doi.org/10.1177/1932202X1102200202

Regueiro, B., Núñez, J. C., Rodríguez, S., Piñeiro, I., & Rosário, P. (2016). Academic goals, student homework engagement, and academic achievement in elementary school. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 463. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00463

Schubert, T. H. (2004). Applying self-recording and self-graphing skills to homework. The University of Georgia, Georgia, The USA.

Stoeger, H. & Ziegler, A. (2006). On the influences of motivational orientations on a training to enhanced self-regulated learning skills. Education Sciences and Psychology, (2), 13-27.

Sundgren, B. (2012). Destructive myths about NGL-how do we cope with them? In NGL 2012 Next Generation Learning Conference (p. 21).

Swezey, C. B. (2004). Effects of learning-styles awareness and homework prescriptions on achievement and attitudes of underachieving middle-school students based on the New York state and New York City standardized examinations in mathematics and English language arts. St. John's University, New York, The USA.

Şentürk, A. (2013). Ev Ödevlerinin ilköğretim birinci sınıf öğrencilerinin ilk okuma yazma becerilerine etkisi. Gazi Üniversitesi, Ankara, Türkiye.

Taş, Y. (2013). An investigation of students’ homework self-regulation and teachers’ homework practices. Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi, Ankara, Türkiye.

Taş, Y. (2014). Özdüzenleme ve ödev ilişkisi: ödev özdüzenlemesi. G. Sakız, (Ed.) Özdüzenleme-öğrenmeden öğretime özdüzenleme davranışlarının gelişimi, stratejiler ve öneriler (ss. 188-217). Ankara: Nobel Yayıncılık.

Trautwein, U. (2007). The homework/achievement relation reconsidered: Differentiating homework time, homework frequency, and homework effort. Learning & Instruction, 17(3), 372-388. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2007.02.009

Trautwein, U. & Köller, O. (2003). The Relationship Between Homework and Achievement--Still Much of a Mystery. Educational Psychology Review, 15(2), 115 145.https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1023460414243

Trautwein, U., Lüdtke, O., Schnyder, I. & Niggli, A. (2006). Predicting homework effort: Support for a domain-specific, multilevel homework model. Journal of Educational Psychology. 98(2), 438-456. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.98.2.438

Trautwein, U., Niggli, A., Schnyder, I., & Lüdtke, O. (2009). Between-teacher differences in homework assignments and the development of students' homework effort, homework emotions, and achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101(1), 176–189. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.101.1.176

Üredi, I. & Üredi, L. (2005). İlköğretim 8. sınıf öğrencilerinin öz-düzenleme stratejileri ve motivasyonel inançlarının matematik başarısını yordama gücü. Mersin Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi,1 (2), 250-260.

Üstünel, M. F. (2016). Ödevin akademik başarıya etkisi: Bir meta analiz çalışması. Akdeniz Üniversitesi, Antalya, Türkiye.

Vermunt, J. D. (1995). Process-oriented instruction in learning and thinking strategies. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 10(4), 325-349. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03172925

Voorhis, F. L. (2003). Interactive homework in middle school: Effects on family involvement and science achievement. The Journal of Educational Research, 96(6), 323–338. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220670309596616

Warton, P. M. (2019). The forgotten voices in homework: Views of students. Educational Psychologist, 36(3), 155-165. htpps://doi.org/10.1207/S15326985EP3603_2

Wigfield, A., Eccles, J. S., Fredricks, J. A., Simpkins, S., Roeser, R. W. & Schiefele, U. (2015). Development of achievement motivation and engagement. Handbook of child psychology and developmental science, 1-44. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118963418.childpsy316

Yalçın, A. (2019). The effects of online EFL assignments on student success. (Unpublished master’s thesis). Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi, Burdur, Türkiye.

Yılmaz, Ç. (2013). İlköğretim 4. ve 5. sınıflarda Türkçe ödev uygulamalarının öğrencilerin okul başarısına etkisinin öğretmen görüşlerine göre değerlendirilmesi. (Unpublished master’s thesis). Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi, Afyon, Türkiye.

Zach, S. (2020). Linear Regression Analysis. New York: Plenum.

Zimmerman, B. J. (1995). Self-Regulation Involves More Than Metacognition: A Social Cognitive Perspective. Educational Psychologist, 30(4), 217-221. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326985ep3004_8

Zimmerman, B. J. (2005). Attaining Self-Regulation: A Social Cognitive Perspective. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of Self-Regulation (pp. 13-39). New York, Academic Press.

Zimmerman, B. J. (2008). Investigating self-regulation and motivation: Historical background, methodological developments, and future prospects. American educational research journal, 45(1), 166-183. https://doi.org/10.3102/0002831207312909

Zimmerman, B. J. & Martinez Pons, M. (1986). Development of A Structured Interview for Assessing Student Use of Self-Regulated Learning. American Educational Research Journal, 23, 614-628. https://doi.org/10.3102/00028312023004614

Zimmerman, B. J. & Martinez-Ponz, M. (1990). Student differences in self-regulated learning: relating grade, sex, and giftedness to self-efficacy and strategy use. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(1), pp. 51-59. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.82.1.51

Zimmerman, B. J. & Schunk D. H. (2012). Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning: Theory, Research and Applications. New York: Routledge.

Zimmerman, B. J., & Kitsantas, A. (2014). Comparing students’ self-discipline and self-regulation measures and their prediction of academic achievement. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 39(2), 145-155. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2014.03.004

Zimmerman, B. J., & Martinez-Pons, M. (1988). Construct validation of a strategy model of student self-regulated learning. Journal of educational psychology, 80(3), 284. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.80.3.284

Additional Files

Published

2022-08-04

How to Cite

Kahramanoğlu, R., & Dursun, B. (2022). Investigation the Relationship between Online Homework, Academic Success and Self-Regulation. Psycho-Educational Research Reviews, 11(2), 23–37. https://doi.org/10.52963/PERR_Biruni_V11.N2.02