Clance Impostor Phenomenon Scale (CIPS): Adaptation and Validation in Turkish University Students




Impostor phenomenon, Factor analysis, Scale adaptation, Validity, Reliability


Impostor phenomenon (IP) is the intense feeling of high achieving individuals who cannot internalize their success and attribute it to interpersonal skills, luck, timing, and contacts. The Clance Impostor Phenomenon Scale (CIPS) assesses the fear of failing and being evaluated negatively, not being able to repeat success, fear of the inability to satisfy the expectations of others, and being less capable of others. This study aims to adapt the CIPS into Turkish. Four hundred seven university students enrolled in the study whose average age is 21.12± 1.72 years. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted. The results of the CFA indicated that the first-order one-factor model was a good fit for the data. Criterion validity analysis results showed a strong negative correlation between CIPS and self-esteem and a strong positive correlation between CIPS and trait anxiety. Test-retest reliability was also strong. The Turkish version of the CIPS has good psychometric properties. The scale can be used to assess the IP levels of young adults.


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Author Biographies

Ezgi Ekin Şahin, Anadolu University

Fatma Uslu Gülşen, Mersin University


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How to Cite

Şahin, E. E. ., & Uslu Gülşen, F. . (2022). Clance Impostor Phenomenon Scale (CIPS): Adaptation and Validation in Turkish University Students. Psycho-Educational Research Reviews, 11(1), 270–282.