General Adaptation Scale for International Students: Development and Validation




Internationalization, Adaptation, International students, Higher education, Scale development


Embracing a holistic and eclectic perspective, this study aims to develop and empirically test an instrument to assess international students’ general adaptation to a host country. The data were obtained from a sample of international undergraduate students (n=843) studying at a Turkish state university using purposive sampling methods of maximum variation. The analyses were conducted in two consecutive phases with two different groups of international students. Upon a meticulous data clean-up and preliminary analyses for the assumptions of normality and reliability, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to discover factor structure was utilized. In the second phase, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed through Lisrel to validate the scale structure revealed by EFA. After a rigorous and iterative scale development process, the results confirm the reliability of factors, model fit and construct validity of the General Adaptation Scale for International Students (GASIS). GASIS as a multi-dimensional instrument consists of 28 items using a five-point Likert scale with four factors labelled as academic adaptation, sociocultural adaptation, psychological adaptation, and daily life adaptation to assess international students’general adaptation levels. The final form of 28-item GASIS with psychometric features, as well as implications and limitations for future research are included in the study.

Author Biographies

Mustafa Polat, Karabuk University

Asst. Prof. Dr. Mustafa POLAT received his first BA in English language teaching department (2010) and the second one in international relations (2021) at Anadolu University, Turkey. He completed his PhD in the curriculum and instruction department at the same university (2019). He has been teaching at the tertiary level since 2012 at the School of Foreign Languages, Karabuk University, Turkey. His research interests lie in the area of curriculum, instruction, foreign language teaching, language anxieties, effective learning, and internationalization of higher education. Dr. POLAT has presented a number of papers in national and international congresses, prepared European Union projects and published several book chapters and articles in national and international scientific journals.

Kürşat Arslan, Karabuk University

Kürşat Arslan, PhD candidate, is a lecturer in the School of Foreign Languages at Karabuk University. He received his BA in ELT department at Istanbul University and completed his MA studies in Educational Administration at Karabuk University. During his career, Arslan has fulfilled roles in various professional fields, including English Language Teaching and Educational Administration, presented papers in national and international conferences, and published various research articles. He has a particular research interest in educational administration, organizational and educational leadership, higher education studies, internationalization of higher education, refugee and displacement studies in educational context.


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How to Cite

Polat, M. ., & Arslan, K. (2022). General Adaptation Scale for International Students: Development and Validation. Psycho-Educational Research Reviews, 11(2), 121–146.