An Examination of Gifted Students' Perceptions of Their Social-Emotional Skills and Peer Relationships




Gifted Students, Gifted, Talented, Social Emotional Skill, Peer Relation


Social-emotional skills are effective in the self-awareness and control of the individual's emotions. These skills should be evaluated together with peer relationships as they play an important role in the communication of the individual with other individuals around him/her. In this study, the social-emotional skill perceptions and peer relationships of gifted students were examined in the survey design. The study group consists of 216 gifted students who studied at Science and Arts Centers (SAC) in Turkey, where specially gifted students were selected through a national exam result, in the 2019-2020 academic year. The data were collected through The Scale of Perceived Social-Emotional Skills, The Friendship Qualities Scale, and the Personal Information Form. Results showed that there was a significant correlation between The Scale of Perceived Social-Emotional Skills and The Friendship Qualities Scale. In addition, this study found a significant correlation between the perceptions of social-emotional skills and the total scores of peer relations, conflict, help, and protection, which are sub-dimensions of peer relations.


American College Test. (2008). The forgotten middle: Ensuring that all students are on target for college and career readiness before high school. Iowa City, IA: American College Test (ACT).

Bapoğlu-Dümenci, S. S. (2018). Üstün zekalı ve yetenekli çocukların akran ilişkilerine sosyal beceri eğitim programının etkisinin incelenmesi [Examining the effects of social skills training on the gifted and talented children’s peer relations]. [Unpublished doctoral dissertation] Ankara Üniversitesi.

Baydan, Y. (2010). Developing the scale of perceived social-emotional skills and the effectiveness of social-emotional skills program [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Hacettepe University.

Beyazkürk, D., Anlıak, Ş., & Dinçer, Ç. (2007). Peer relations and friendship in childhood. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research (EJER), 26 (13-26).

Bloomquist, M. L., & Schnell, S. V. (2002). Helping children with aggression and conduct problems: Best practices for intervention. Newyork: Guilford Press.

Buist, K. L., & Vermande, M. (2014). Sibling relationship patterns and their associations with child competence and problem behavior. Journal of Family Psychology, 28(4), 529 –537.

Buist, K. L., Deković, M., & Prinzie, P. (2013). Sibling relationship quality and psychopathology of children and adolescents: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 33(1), 97-106.

Bukowski, W. M., Hoza, B., & Boivin, M. (1994). Measuring friendship quality during pre and early adolescence: The development and psychometric properties of the friendship qualities scale. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 11(3), 471-84.

Butt, F. M. (2010). The role of perfectionism in psychological health: A study of adolescents in Pakistan. Europe’s Journal of Psychology. 6(4), 135-42.

Büyüköztürk, Ş., Kılıç Çakmak, E., Akgün, Ö. E., Karadeniz, Ş., & Demirel, F. (2020). Eğitimde bilimsel araştırma yöntemleri [Scientific research methods in education]. Ankara: Pegem Akademi.

De Fruyt, F., Wille, B., & John, O. P. (2015). Employability in the 21st Century: Complex (Interactive) problem solving and other essential skills. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 8(2), 276–281.

Dinçer, C., & Güneysu, S. (1997). Examining the effects of problem-solving training on the acquisition of interpersonal problem-solving skills by 5-year-old children in Turkey. International Journal of Early Years Education, 5(1), 37-46.

Elcik, F., & Bayındır, N. (2015). Examination of perceived social support level of gifted students' environment. Route Educational and Social Science Journal. 2(4), 446–456. 10.17121/ressjournal.441

Erdem, G. (2019). Investigation of the relationshıp between social media use, peer relationships and emotion regulation in high school students [Unpublished master’s thesis]. Near East University.

Erkan-Atik, Z., Çoban, A. E., Çok, F., Doğan, T., & Karaman, N. G. (2014). The Turkish adaptation of the friendship qualities scale: A validity and reliability study. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 14(2), 433-446.

Erol, B. (2004). Üstün yeteneklerde duygusal zekâ ile benlik saygısı arasındaki ilişki [The relationship between emotional intelligence and self-esteem of the gifted science hight school students] [Unpublished master’s thesis]. Karadeniz Teknik Üniversitesi

Erol, F. (2015). The relationship between subjective well-being of gifted adolescents and their peer relations [Unpublished master’s thesis]. Marmara University.

Fraenkel, J. R., Wallen, N. E., & Hyun, H. H. (2012). How to design and evaluate research in education. (8th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Frederickson, N. L., & Furnham, A. F. (2001). The long-term stability of sociometric status classification: A longitudinal study of included pupils who have moderate learning difficulties and their mainstream peers. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42(5), 581–592.

Freeman, J. (2002). Out-of-school educational provision for the gifted and talented around the world. Retrieved 02.01.2021, from

Freeman, J. (2019). The emotional development of the gifted and talented. In B. Wallace, D. A. Sisk, & J. Senior (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of gifted and talented education (pp. 298–320). SAGE.

George, D. & Mallery, P. (2010). SPSS for windows step by step. A simple study guide an reference. ABD: Allyn and Bacon.

Gross, M. U. (2002). Social and emotional issues for exceptionally intellectually gifted students. In M. Neihart, S. M. Reis, N. M. Robinson & S. M. Moon (Eds.), The social and emotional development of gifted children: What do we know? (pp. 19-30).Texas: Prufrock Press.

Hughes, C., & Leekam, S. (2004). What are the links between theory of mind and social relations? Review, reflections and new directions for studies of typical and atypical development. Social Development, 13, 590–619.

Hughes, C., McHarg, G., & White, N. (2018). Sibling influences on prosocial behavior. Current Opinion in Psychology, 20, s. 96–101.

Jenkins, J., & Dunn, J. (2009). Siblings within families: Levels of analysis and patterns of influence. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 126, 79–93.

John, O. P., & De Fruyt, F. (2015). Framework for the longitudinal study of social and emotional skills in cities. Paris, France: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

Kautz, T., Heckman, J. J., Diris, R., ter Weel, B., & Borghans, L. (2014). Fostering and measuring skills: Improving cognitive and non-cognitive skills to promote lifetime success (National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 20749).

Košir, K., Sočan, G., & Pečjak, S. (2007). The role of interpersonal relationships with peers and with teachers in students academic achievement. Review of Psychology, 14(1), 43–58.

Kuo, Y. L., Casillas, A., Walton, K. E., Way, J. D., & Moore, J. L. (2020). The intersectionality of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status on social and emotional skills. Journal of Research in Personality, 84, 103905.

Kurz, N. M. (2006). The relationship between teacher’s sense of academic optimism and commitment to the profession [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. The Ohio State University.

Lamarche, V., Brendgen, M., Boivin, M., Vitaro, F., Perusse, ´ D., & Dionne, G. (2006). Do friendships and sibling relationships provide protection against peer victimization in a similar way? Social Development, 15, 373–393.

Lansford, J. E., Criss, M. M., Pettit, G. S., Dodge, K. A., & Bates, J. E. (2003). Friendship quality, peer group affiliation and peer antisocial behavior as moderators of the link between negative parenting and adolescent externalizing behavior. Journal of Research Adolescence, 13(2), 129-238.

Lapidot-Berman, J., & Oshrat, Z. (2009). Sibling relationships in families with gifted children. Gifted Educational International, 25 (1), 36-47.

Leana, M. Z., & Köksal, A. (2007, April 26-30). Relationship between l’st grade gıfted and normal students' IQ and EQ [Conference presentation]. International Symposium Emotional Intelligence and Communication VI, İzmir, Turkey.

Lee, S. Y., & Olszewski-Kubilius, P. (2006). The emotional intelligence, moral judgment, and leadership of academically gifted adolescents. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 30(1), 29-67.

Levitt, M. J., Levitt, J., Bustos, G. L., Crooks, N. A., Santos, J. D., Telan, P., & Milevsky, A. (2005). Patterns of social support in the middle childhood to early adolescent transition: Implications for adjustment. Social development, 14(3), 398-420.

Leyden, S. (2002). Supporting the child of exceptional ability at home and school. London: David Fulton Publishers Ltd.

Miyamoto, K., Huerta, M. C., & Kubacka, K. (2015). Fostering social and emotional skills for well‐being and social progress. European Journal of Education, 50(2), 147-159.

Needham, V. (2012). Primary teachers’ perceptions of the social and emotional aspects of gifted and talented education. APEX: The New Zealand Journal of Gifted Education, 17(1), 1-18.

Neihart, M. (2016). Services that meet social and emotional needs of gifted children. In: R.D. Eckert, & J.H. Robins (Eds.), Designing services and programs for high ability learners: A guidebook for gifted education. (pp. 122–135). California: Corwin Press.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2015). Draft proposal: OECD Longitudinal Study of Skills Development in Cities. Paris, France: OECD.

Pallant, J. (2016). SPSS kullanma kılavuzu: SPSS ile adım adım veri analizi [SPSS Survival Manual A step by step guide to data analysis using IBM SPSS] (S. Balcı ve B. Ahi, Çev.) (6. bs.). Ankara: Anı.

Parker, J. G., & Asher, S. R. (1987). Peer relations and later personal adjustment: Are low-accepted children at risk? Psychological Bulletin, 102(3), 357–389.

Peterson J., Duncan N., & Canady K. A. (2009) Longitudinal study of negative life events, stress and school experiences of gifted youth. Gifted Child Quarterly. 53(1), 4- 49.

Pfeiffer, S. I., & Stocking, V. B. (2000). Vulnerabilities of academically gifted students. Special Services in Schools, 16(1-2), 83-93.

Pike, A., Coldwell, J., & Dunn, J. (2005). Sibling relationships in early/middle childhood: Links with individual adjustment. Journal of Family Psychology, 19(4), 523–532.

Poropat, A. E. (2009). A meta-analysis of the five-factor model of personality and academic performance. Psychological Bulletin, 135(2), 322–338.

Preus, L. J., & Dubow, E. F. (2004). A comparison between intellectually gifted and typical children in their coping responses to a schooland a peer stressor. Roeper Review, 26(2), 105-111.

Primi, R., Santos, D., John, O. P., & De Fruyt, F. (2016). Development of an inventory assessing social and emotional skills in Brazilian youth. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 32(1), 5–16.

Renati, R., Bonfiglio, N. S., & Pfeiffer, S. (2017). Challenges raising a gifted child: Stress and resilience factors within the family. Gifted Education International, 33(2), 145-162.

Richards, J. S., Encel, J., & Shute, R. (2003). The emotional and behavioral adjustment of intellectually gifted adolescents: A multi-dimensional, multi-informant approach. High Ability Studies, 14(2), 153-163.

Rogers, D. L., & Ross, D. D. (1986). Encouraging positive social interaction among young children. Young Children. 41(3). 12-17.

Rudasill, K. M., & Callahan, C. M. (2008). Psychometric characteristics of the Harter Self-Perception Profiles for adolescents and children for use with gifted populations. Gifted Child Quarterly, 52(1), 70-86.

Saferstein, J. A., Neimeyer, G. J., & Hagans, C. L. (2005). Attachment as a predictor of friendship qualities in college youth. Social Behavior and Personality, 33(8), 767-776.

Sak, U. (2014). Üstün zekâlılar: Özellikleri, tanılanmaları, eğitimleri [Gifted people: Characteristics, diagnosis, education] . Ankara: Vize Yayincilik.

Sak, U., Ayas, M.B., Sezerel, B.B., Öpengin, E., Özdemir, N.N., & Gürbüz, S.D. (2015). Gifted and talented education in Turkey: Critics and prospects. Turkish Journal of Giftedness and Education, 5(2), 110.

Saranlı, A. G. (2017). Eş zamanlı olmayan gelişimin üstün yetenekli çocuklardaki görünümü üzerine bir örnek olay çalışması [A case study on the manifestation of asynchronous development in gifted children]. Ankara Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi Özel Eğitim Dergisi, 18(1), 89-108.

Saranlı, A. G., & Metin, N. (2012). Social-emotional problems observed in gifted children. Journal of Faculty of Educational Sciences, 45(1), 139-163.

Scheffe, H. (1999). The analysis of variance (Vol. 72). John Wiley & Sons.

Sevgili Koçak, S., & Kan, A. (2019). Investigation of the relationships among social emotional skills, friendship quality and loneliness level: a research on gifted students. Electronic Turkish Studies, 14(7), 3939- 3952.

Shapiro, L.E. (2017). Yüksek EQ’lu bir çocuk yetiştirmek anne-babalar için duygusal zekâ rehberi. (Çev. Kartel, Ü.) İstanbul: Varlık Yayınları.

Silverman, L. K. (1993). Social development, leadership and gender issues. In L. K. Silverman (Ed.), Counselling the gifted and talented, (s. 291 – 327). Denver, CO: Love Publishing.

Smith, P. A., & Hoy, W. K. (2007). Academic optimism and student achievement in urban elementary schools. Journal of Educational Administration, 45(5), 556-568.

Spence, S. H. (2003). Social skills training with children and young people: Theory, evidence and practice. Child and adolescent mental health, 8(2), 84-96.

Stuart, T., & Beste A. (2008). Farklı olduğumu biliyordum: üstün yeteneklileri anlayabilmek. (Çev. Gönenli, A.), Ankara: Ankara Kök Yayıncılık (s. 15-50).

Tabachnick, B., & Fidell, L. (2013) Using Multivariate Statistics (6th ed.), Pearson Education, New York.

Tosuntaş-Karakuş, F. (2006). The relationship between the level of the perceived emotional abuse and social skills of the adolescents [Unpublished master’s thesis]. Marmara University.

Underwood, M. K., & Rosen, L. H. (2009). Gender, peer relations and challenges for girlfriends and boyfriends coming together in adolescence. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 33(1), 16-20.

Uysaler, H. (2015). Arkadaşlık becerilerini geliştirme programının üstün zekâlı öğrencilerin arkadaşlık ilişkilerini etkisi [The effect of friendship skills development program on the friendship relations of gifted students] [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Istanbul University.

Watson, D., Hubbard, B., & Wiese, D. (2000). General traits of personality and affectivity as predictors of satisfaction in intimate relationships: Evidence from self- and partner-ratings. Journal of Personality, 68(3), 413–419.

Yazgı, Z. (2019). Metacognitive awareness as a predictor of social emotional learning skills in gifted and talented students [Unpublished master’s thesis]. Istanbul Sabahattin Zaim University.

Additional Files



How to Cite

Yıldırım, H. İbrahim, & Kayhan, N. (2022). An Examination of Gifted Students’ Perceptions of Their Social-Emotional Skills and Peer Relationships. Psycho-Educational Research Reviews, 11(3), 721–737.