The Relationships between Teacher and Student Qualities in TIMSS 2019: A Path Analysis Model




TIMSS 2019, Teacher Qualities, Student Qualities, Mathematics Achievement, Sense of School Belonging


In this study, the model that examined the relationship between teacher and student qualities was tested based on the teacher and student questionnaire in the TIMSS 2019 Turkey sample.  The variables of experience, participation in professional development, professional development needs, school academic emphasis, instructional quality in the teacher questionnaire, as well as the instructional clarity, instructional climate, sense of school belonging and mathematics achievement variables in the student questionnaire were investigated. Data of 171 teachers and 3841 students were used. In the study, the path coefficients of the relations between the variables and the goodness of fit values for the model created were interpreted. All of the path coefficients between the variables had a significant and moderate effect. When the standardized path coefficients in the model were examined, the highest value (β = 0.48) was obtained on the way that instructional clarity predicted sense of school belonging and the lowest value (β = 0.14) was obtained on the way that the participation in professional development predicted the instructional climate. When the fit indices were examined, it was concluded that the model-data fit of the established model was perfect. In addition, it was determined that 33% of the variance in the mathematics achievement and 27% of the variance in the sense of school belonging were explained by direct effects in the model.


Akçay Kızılkaya, H. (2012). A research on the examination of teachers' professional development in terms of their attitudes about professional development and job satisfaction, [Unpublished master’s dissertation]. Kırıkkale University.

Akiva, T., Smith, C., Sugar, S., & Brummet, Q. (2011). Staff instructional practices, youth engagement, and belonging in out-of-school time programs. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting, New Orleans, Louisiana.

Akyüz, G., & Berberoğlu, G. (2010). Teacher and classroom characteristics and their relations to mathematics achievement of the students in the TIMSS. New Horizons in Education, 58(1), 77–95. Retrieved from

Allen, KA., Slaten, C.D., Arslan, G., Roffey, S., Craig, H., & Vella-Brodrick, D.A. (2021). School belonging: The importance of student and teacher relationships. In: Kern, M.L., Wehmeyer, M.L. (Eds) The palgrave handbook of positive education. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

Allen, K. A., Kern, M. L., Vella- Brodrick, D., Hattie, J., & Waters, L. (2018). What schools need to know about fostering school belonging: A meta-analysis. Educational Psychology Review, 30, 1–34.

Arends, F. (2021). Help them understand: the importance of instructional clarity in teaching and learning. HSRC Review. 19(2), 33-34. Retrieved from

Atlay, C., Tieben, N., Fauth, B., & Hillmert, S. (2019). The role of socioeconomic background and prior achievement for students’ perception of teacher support. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 40(7), 970-991.

Badri, M. (2019). School emphasis on academic success and TIMSS science/math achievements. International Journal of Research in Education and Science (IJRES), 5(1), 176-189. Retrieved from

Baria, K., & Gomez, D. (2022). Influence of social support to student learning and development. International Journal of Research Studies in Education, 11(2), 69-97.

Barksdale, C., Peters, M. L., & Corrales, A. (2021). Middle school students’ perceptions of classroom climate and its relationship to achievement. Educational Studies, 47(1), 84-107,

Bellens, K., Van Damme, J., Van Den Noortgate, W., Wendt, H., & Nilsen, T. (2019). Instructional quality: catalyst or pitfall in educational systems’ aim for high achievement and equity? An answer based on multilevel SEM analyses of TIMSS 2015 data in Flanders (Belgium), Germany, and Norway. Large-Scale Assessments in Education, 7(1), 1–28.

Berkowitz, R. (2017). A research synthesis of the associations between socioeconomic background, inequality, school climate, and academic achievement. Review of Educational Research, 87(2), 425-469.

Bhai, M., & Horoi, I. (2019). Teacher characteristics and academic achievement. Applied Economics, 51, 4781-4799.

Blömeke, S., Olsen, R. V., & Suhl, U. (2016). Relation of student achievement to the quality of their teachers and instructional quality. In T. Nilsen, & J.-E. Gustafsson (Eds.) Teacher quality, instructional quality and student outcomes (pp. 21–50). Springer.

Bolkan, S. (2016). The importance of instructor clarity and its effect on student learning: Facilitating elaboration by reducing cognitive load. Communication Reports, 29(3), 152-162.

Bouchard, K. L., & Berg, D. H. (2017). Students’ school belonging: Juxtaposing the perspectives of teachers and students in the late elementary school years (grades 4–8). The School Community Journal, 27(1), 107–136. Retrieved from

Brown, T.A. (2006). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. Guilford Press.

Buddin, R. & Zamarro, G. (2009). Teacher qualifications and student achievement in urban elementary schools. Journal of Urban Economics, 66, 103-115.

Burroughs, N., Gardner, J., Lee, Y., Guo, S., Touitou, I., Jansen, K. et al. (Eds.). (2019). Teaching for excellence and equity. IEA research for education 6. Springer Open.

Castro, M., Expósito-Casas, E., López-Martín, E., Lizasoain, L., Navarro-Asencio, E., & Gaviria, J. L. (2015). Parental involvement on student academic achievement: A meta-analysis. Educational Research Review, 14, 33–46.

Chen, X., & Lu, L. (2022). How classroom management and instructional clarity relate to students' academic emotions in Hong Kong and England: A multi-group analysis based on the control-value theory. Learning and Individual Differences, 98, 1-11.

Chesebro, J. L. (2003). Effects of teacher clarity and nonverbal immediacy on student learning, receiver apprehension, and affect. Communication Education, 52, 135–147.

Chou, M.H. (2021). The mediating role of achievement emotions in the relationship between instructional clarity, English proficiency, and reading strategies. Educational Psychology, 41(5), 582-601.

Clotfelter, C. T., Ladd, H. F., & Vigdor, J. L. (2006). Teacher-student matching and the assessment of teacher effectiveness. NBER Working Paper No. 11936, January.

Darling-Hammond, L. (2000). Teacher quality and student achievement: A review of state policy evidence. Educational Policy Analysis Archives, 8(1).

Darling-Hammond, L., & Youngs, P. (2002). Defining “Highly qualified teachers”: What does “scientifically-based research” actually tell us? Educational Researcher, 31, 13-25.

Desimone, L. M. (2009). Improving impact studies of teachers’ professional development: Toward better conceptualizations and measures. Educational Researcher, 38, 181-200.

Duffin, L. C., Keith, H. B., Rudloff, M. I., & Cribbs, J. D. (2020) The effects of instructional approach and social support on college algebra students’ motivation and achievement: classroom climate matters. International Journal of Research in Undergraduate Mathematics Education, 6, 90-112.

Ekşi, G., & Çapa-Aydın, Y. (2013). English instructors’ professional development need areas and predictors of professional development needs. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 70, 675-685.

Ersan, O., & Rodriguez, M. C. (2020). Socioeconomic status and beyond: A multilevel analysis of TIMSS mathematics achievement given student and school context in Turkey. Largescale Assessments in Education, 8(1), 1-32. Retrieved from

Fan, X., & Chen, M. (2001). Parental involvement and students' academic achievement: A meta-analysis. Educational Psychology Review, 13, 1–22.

Fischer, C., Fishman, B., Dede, C., Eisenkraft, A., Frumin, K., Foster, B., Lawrence, F., Levy, A. J., & McCoy, A. (2018). Investigating relationships between school context, teacher professional development, teaching practices, and student achievement in response to a nationwide science reform. Teaching and Teacher Education, 72, 107–121.

Fraenkel, J. R., Wallen, N. E., & Hyun, H. H. (2011). How to design and evaluate research in education. Mc Graw Hill.

Fraser, B. J. (1986). Classroom environment. Croom Helm.

Freeman, T. M., Anderman, L. H., & Jensen, J. M. (2007). Sense of belonging in college freshmen at the classroom and campus levels. The Journal of Experimental Education, 75(3), 203-220.

Glassow, L.N., Rolfe, V. & Hansen, K.Y. (2021). Assessing the comparability of teacher-related constructs in TIMSS 2015 across 46 education systems: An alignment optimization approach. Educational Assessment, Evauation and Accountability, 33, 105–137.

Goe, L. (2007). The link between teacher quality and student outcomes: A research synthesis. National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality.

Goodenow, C., & Grady, K. E. (1993). The relationship of school belonging and friends' values to academic motivation among urban adolescent students. The Journal of Experimental Education, 62(1), 60-71.

Gökmenoğlu, T., Clark, C., & Kiraz, E. (2016). Professional development needs of Turkish teachers in an era of national reforms. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 41(1), 113-125.

Guskey, T. R. (2002). Professional development and teacher change. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 8, 381- 391.

Harris, D.N., & Sass, T.R. (2011). Teacher training, teacher quality and student achievement. Journal of Public Economics, 95, 798-812.

Holzberger, D., & Schiepe-Tiska, A. (2021). Is the school context associated with instructional quality? The effects of social composition, leadership, teacher collaboration, and school climate. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 32(3), 465–485.

Hooper, M., Mullis, I. V. S., Martin, M. O. (2013). TIMSS 2015 context questionnaire framework. In Mullis, I. V. S., Martin, M. O. (Eds.), TIMSS 2015 assessment frameworks (pp. 61–82). Retrieved from Boston College, TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center website:

Işıkoğlu, N., Baştürk, R., & Karaca, F. (2009). Assessing in-service teachers’ instructional beliefs about student-centered education: A Turkish perspective. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25, 350-356.

Jöreskog, K. G., & Sörbom, D. (2001). LISREL 8: User‘s reference (2nd ed.). Scientific Software International.

Kang, H., Cha, J., & Ha, B. (2013). What should we consider in teachers’ professional development impact studies? Based on the conceptual framework of Desimone. Creative Education, 4, 11-18.

Kiang, L., Malin, H., & Sandoz, A. (2020). Discovering identity and purpose in the classroom: Theoretical, empirical, and Applied Perspectives. In Burrow, A. L., Hill, P. L. (Eds.), The ecology of purposeful living across the lifespan (pp. 93–113). Springer International Publishing.

Kini, T., & Podolsky, A. (2016). Does teaching experience increase teacher effectiveness? A review of the research. Learning Policy Institute.

Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (2nd ed). New York, NY: Guilford.

Kola, A. J., & Sunday, O. S. (2015). A review of teachers’ qualifications and its implication on students’ academic achievement in Nigerian schools. International Journal of Educational Research and Information Science, 2(2), 10-15. Retrieved from’-Qualifications-and-Its-on-in-Aina-Sunday/d3b05e304d4e09145673965547422cc01a00580a

Koyuncu, İ. (2022). TIMSS international benchmarks of eighth graders in mathematics: A correspondence analysis study. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 14(2), 179-194.

Kunter, M., Klusmann, U., Baumert, J., Richter, D., Voss, T., & Hachfeld, A. (2013). Professional competence of teachers: Effects on instructional quality and student development. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(3), 805–820.

Larocque, M. (2008). Assessing Perceptions of the Environment in Elementary Classrooms: The Link with Achievement. Educational Psychology in Practices, 24, 289-305.

Loes, C. N., & Pascarella, E. T. (2015). The Benefits of Good Teaching Extend Beyond Course Achievement. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 15(2), 1–13.

MacAulay, D. J. (1990). Classroom environment: A literature review. Educational Psychology, 10(3), 239-253.

Martin, M. O., von Davier, M., & Mullis, I. V. (2020). Methods and Procedures: TIMSS 2019 Technical Report. International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement. Retrieved from

Mullis, I. V. S., & Martin, M. O. (Eds.). (2017). TIMSS 2019 Assessment Frameworks. Retrieved from Boston College, TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center website:

Nilsen, T. & Gustafsson, J. E. (2014). School emphasis on academic success: exploring changes in science performance in Norway between 2007 and 2011 employing two-level SEM. Educational Research and Evaluation, 20(4), 308-327.

Nilsen, T., Gustafsson, J. E., & Blömeke, S. (2016). Conceptual framework and methodology of the report. In T. Nilsen & J. E. Gustafsson (Eds.), Teacher quality, instructional quality and student outcomes, relationships across countries, cohorts and time (pp. 1-21). IEA Publishing.

OECD (2009). Creating effective teaching and learning environments first results from TALIS. Paris Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development.

OECD (2018). Effective Teacher Policies: Insights from PISA, PISA, OECD Publishing, Paris.

Owens, D. C., Sadler, T. D., Murakami, C. D., & Tsai, C-L. (2018). Teachers’ views on and preferences for meeting their professional development needs in STEM. School Science and Mathematics. 2018(118), 370– 384.

Penuel, W. R., Phillips, R. S., & Harris, C. J. (2014). Analysing teachers’ curriculum implementation from integrity and actor-oriented perspectives. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 46(6), 751-777.

Rice, J. K. (2010). The Impact of Teacher Experience Examining the Evidence and Policy Implications. National Centre for Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Educational Research, Urban Institute.

Rubie-Davies, C. (2015). Teachers’ instructional beliefs and the classroom climate. In H. Fives & M. G. Gill (Eds.), International handbook of research on teachers͛ beliefs (pp.266 - 283). Routledge.

Sauceda, Ak.K. (2003). The effect of teacher degree level, teacher certification, and years of teacher experience on student achievement in middle school mathematics, [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Baker University.

Slaten, C., Ferguson, J., Allen, K., Brodrick, D., & Waters, L. (2016). School Belonging: A Review of the History, Current Trends, and Future Directions. The Educational and Developmental Psychologist, 33(1), 1-15.

Sümer, N. (2000). Yapısal eşitlik modelleri: Temel kavramlar ve örnek uygulamalar. Türk Psikoloji Yazıları, 3, 49-73. Retrieved from

Squire-Kelly, V. D. (2012). The relationship between teacher empowerment and student achievement, [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Georgia Southern University.

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using multivariate statistics (6th ed.). Pearson.

Tengberg, M. van Bommel, J., Nilsberth, M., Walkert, M., & Nissen, A. (2022). The quality of instruction in Swedish lower secondary language arts and mathematics. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 66(5), 760-777.

Timperley, H., Wilson, A., Barrar, H., & Fung, I. (2007). Teacher Professional Learning and Development: Best Evidence Synthesis Iteration [BES]. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Education. Retrieved from

Ünal, Z., & Ünal, A. (2011). The impact of years of teaching experience on the classroom management approaches of elementary school teachers. International Journal of Instruction, 5(2), 41-60. Retrieved from

Van de Grift, W. (2007). Quality of teaching in four European countries: A review of the literature and application of an assessment instrument. Educational Research, 49, 127-152.

Wayne, A. J. & Youngs, P. (2003). Teacher characteristics and student achievement gains: A review. Review of Educational Research, 73(1), 89–122.

Yağan, S. A. (2021). The relationships between instructional clarity, classroom management and mathematics achievement: Mediator role of attitudes towards mathematics. In W. B. James, C. Çobanoğlu, & M. Cavuşoğlu (Eds.), Advances in global education and research (pp. 1-11). USF M3 Publishing.

Additional Files



How to Cite

Şahin, M. G., Çelik, Özge C., & Yıldırım, Y. (2022). The Relationships between Teacher and Student Qualities in TIMSS 2019: A Path Analysis Model. Psycho-Educational Research Reviews, 11(3), 443–461.