Comparative Study of Self-transcendence, Spiritual Wellbeing, Optimism and Meaning in Life among Retirees and Post-retirement Employees



self-transcendence, spiritual well-being, optimism, meaning in life, retirees, post-retirement employees


The purpose of this study was to investigate the inter-correlations of self-transcendence, spiritual well-being, optimism and meaning in life. Additionally, the aim was to find out the differences in mean scores of self-transcendence, spiritual well-being, optimism and meaning in life between retirees and post-retirement employees. The sample consisted of people with Bachelor Degree. Retirees sample consisted of 60 participants (52 men, and 8 women), while post-retirement employees consisted of 60 participants (all of them were men). The Self-Transcendence Scale (STS) (Reed 2018), The Spirituality Index of Well-Being (SIWB) (Daaleman and Frey 2004), The Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) (Scheier, Carver and Bridges, 1994) and Meaning in Life Questionnaire (Steger, Frazier, Oishi and Kaler 2006) were used. The data were analyzed with Pearson correlation. The t-test was used. Findings indicated that there were significant positive correlations between self-transcendence, spiritual well-being, optimism and meaning in life. Self-transcendence correlated positively with spiritual well-being, optimism and meaning in life. Spiritual well-being correlated positively with optimism and meaning in life. There were differences in mean scores of self-transcendence, optimism and meaning in life between retirees and post-retirement employees. However there was not difference in spiritual well-being between the two groups. Findings were discussed and conclusion was included.


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Author Biography

Ayman Abdelgalil M. Elkady

Assistant Professor
Psychology Department
Faculty of Arts
Tanta University
Psychology Department
College of Education
Jazan University
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia


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How to Cite

Elkady, A. A. M. (2019). Comparative Study of Self-transcendence, Spiritual Wellbeing, Optimism and Meaning in Life among Retirees and Post-retirement Employees. Psycho-Educational Research Reviews, 8(2), 85 –. Retrieved from